Any operation for any person represents a certain risk. What, then, is there to talk about a future mother whose body works in a completely different way during pregnancy? At pregnancy at the woman practically all systems of an organism are reconstructed on other mode of work: she differently breathes; the liver, kidneys and heart work in a strengthened mode; the composition of the blood changes & hellip; But even realizing, That it is necessary whenever possible to avoid cases in which operation is required, sometimes occurs so, that on risk nevertheless it is necessary to go.
Most often pregnant women get to the operating table because of injuries, because of acute organ diseases (for example, appendicitis), exacerbation of surgical diseases. Dental problems can also serve as an excuse for surgical intervention. If it turns out that surgery can not be avoided, not only the surgeon, but the anesthesiologist in the first place, must do everything possible so as not to harm the mother and the future baby.
So, an anesthesiologist, like a jeweler, will have to calculate the dose in this particular case, and also take into account the permeability of the placenta, sensitivity or insensitivity of the fetus to the anesthetic and its subsequent impact on the growing small organism.
Anesthesia in principle is a certain danger at any stage of pregnancy, because it can damage the developing fetus. Anesthesia drugs can disrupt the development of baby's cells, disrupt the biochemical reactions of metabolism, disrupt the development of the fetus as a whole or lead to severe deformities or even the death of the child.
Anesthesiology is most dangerous for pregnant women during the periods between the 2nd and 8th week of pregnancy, when the basic organs of the baby are formed, and also from the 28th week until the end of pregnancy. That's when the risk of abortion and major complications for a woman is very high. This is due to the fact, that at this stage the organs of the abdominal cavity of the pregnant woman are "clamped" by the uterus, it presses on the main blood vessels in the abdomen, disrupting the flow of blood. In turn, the pressure in the abdominal cavity passes to the thoracic cavity, while the volume of respiratory movements decreases. Thus, mum breathes also for the child. In connection with all this, the doctors, if necessary, perform the operation as much as possible to carry out the operation between 14 and 28 weeks: at that time the child's organs are already formed, and the uterus responds to the external impact minimally.
The specialists responsible for the operation of the pregnant woman choose the tactics of anesthesia depending on the terms of pregnancy, the complexity and duration of the operation, and also on the basis of the individual characteristics of the woman's body. Their main tasks at the same time are the maximum protection of the child and the preservation of pregnancy.
The most safe method of anesthesia for a future mother and fetus today is recognized as epidural (or regional) anesthesia. With this kind of analgesia, the anesthetic is injected into the space above the dura mater of the spinal cord: here pass the nerve roots, which deliver painful impulses from the uterus. For the painlessness of the procedure, the skin before the injection is preliminarily anesthetized. With this kind of anesthesia, the woman remains conscious - only the lower half of the trunk and legs are anesthetized. If this method of anesthesia is properly performed, the risk for the baby and mother is minimal. Contraindications for epidural anesthesia are: sepsis, neurological diseases, bleeding disorders, skin infection at the injection site. If the application of this method of anesthesia is not possible (for example, with a long and serious operation), a multi-component balanced anesthetic with artificial ventilation is used.
If nevertheless the operation could not be avoided, pregnant women, depending on the situation, can prescribe all kinds of medications. For example, immediately before the operation, as a rule, Ranitidine is prescribed: it is intended to reduce the acidity of gastric juice in order to avoid vomiting.
Anesthetic Ketamine (Calypzol) is usually used for intravenous anesthesia. In the first and second trimester - only in small doses for special indications and in combination with other drugs, because he has the property to increase the tone of the uterus. In the third trimester, the negative effect of Ketamine decreases.
With severe pain, a doctor can make a pregnant injection of Morphine or Promedol. These drugs are considered to be the most safe for expectant mothers, because they practically do not provoke the appearance of malformations in the fetus.
In small operations, local anesthesia is usually used: in such cases, lidocaine is used. This drug can penetrate early in the placenta, but its beauty is that the baby's organism destroys this drug even faster than the adult body.
It happens that sometimes the future mothers still have to take risks and go under the scalpel. In this case, the most important thing is to find real good specialists who will be able to help the pregnant woman with the necessary skill and skill. Thus it is necessary to strictly adhere to recommendations of doctors, to execute all their instructions and to accept the prescribed preparations. The main thing for future mothers is to remember: very often our health depends only on ourselves. And therefore during pregnancy you will have to be very careful and avoid traumatic situations.