Medical statistics say, that about 2% of women during pregnancy feel the need for surgery and anesthesia, respectively. These can be surgical interventions in traumatology, dentistry, surgery (cholecystectomy or appendectomy).
You should be aware that operations in such periods are performed only for women on emergency indications and under the condition of an imminent threat to the life of the future mother. If the condition of a woman is not so serious, it does not require haste, then in this case doctors are advised to wait for the birth of a baby and only the field of it should be hospitalized for surgical intervention.
Analysis of long-term statistics of anesthesia and operations to pregnant women allowed the following conclusions:
- Mortality during anesthesia in pregnant women is low. It is quantitatively comparable to the lethal outcome of surgery in healthy women.
- The risk of congenital anomalies in newborns, whose mothers underwent surgical interventions during their period of gestation, is extremely low. It is comparable with the frequency of similar pathologies of pregnant women who have not undergone anesthesia.
- The average probability of miscarriage and death of the fetus over the entire period of pregnancy is about 6%. This figure is 11% if the operations were carried out in the first trimester of gestation, and especially in the first eight weeks. It is at this time that all the systems and organs of the future boy or girl are laid.
- The risk of preterm labor during anesthesia during pregnancy is about 8%.
Studies have confirmed the safety of drugs that are used for anesthesia in pregnancy. Negative effects on the fetus of historically dangerous preparations of nitrous oxide and diazepam are questioned. In anesthesia during the period of nurturing a child, it is not so much the choice of an anesthetic (a medicine) as the technique of conducting anesthesia. An important role is played by the prevention of lowering blood pressure and oxygen saturation of the blood of the future mother during anesthesia. There is an opinion that during pregnancy it is necessary to avoid the use of local anesthesia, in particular preparations containing adrenaline, because their accidental introduction into the blood vessel is fraught with impaired blood flow to the placenta. Therefore, you need to pay attention to the fact that the local anesthetic of ultracaine, popular in the dental environment, contains exactly adrenaline.
So, anesthesia during the operation of a future mother is safe enough for her health. But it can negatively affect the future child. And especially high such risk in the first trimester of bearing a baby.
The decision on the expediency of surgical intervention in such a period crucial for a woman should be taken responsibly, collectively, in a balanced manner, taking into account the possible negative impact of anesthesia on the future child. If the woman's health, indicators for surgery allow a little to delay with a surgical intervention, then this should be done and transferred to the third trimester of pregnancy.
As for the choice of the type of anesthesia, it is always done, giving preference to local anesthesia. When the operation can not be done under local anesthesia, then another option is regional anesthesia. If this method of anesthesia is not possible, surgical intervention is performed under general anesthesia.