Why are antibodies produced?
The appearance of such substances is a consequence of the development of an immunocompetent pregnancy, that is incompatibility of the future popes and mother of the child on the Rh factor or group of blood. When a woman's body produces immunoglobulins IgG (antibodies) as a response to the ingress of fetal erythrocytes in the bloodstream, different from the mother, the doctors talk about isoimmunization. This process can also be called maternal alloimmunization.
Many representatives of the weaker sex with a minus Rh factor are simply afraid to bear a child. They believe that it will not be possible to avoid the development of an immune conflict. But this does not always happen. The ingestion of red blood cells of the fetus into the mother's bloodstream is the main condition for the development of a conflict pregnancy. Also, risk factors are ectopic pregnancy, hemotransfusion, spontaneous abortion, placental abruption, the absence of specific prophylaxis of immunoconflict in past pregnancies, as well as pathological births, for example, with manual removal of the placenta, amniocentesis. Conflict pregnancy with the development of antibody titers can also develop after previous births performed by the cesarean section.
What is AB0 conflict
It develops in cases when a woman owns blood group 0 (I), and her future baby is A (II), and also if B is incompatible (III) and AB (IV). The latter occurs less often.
AB0 develops when a woman has a habitual miscarriage; antenatal fetal death; artificial termination of pregnancy on a long term.
AB0 conflict contributes to the development of subclinical or mild hemolytic disease. However, in such situations, children are born healthy or require minimal treatment.
What is Rh-conflict
With Rh-negative blood in a woman and Rh-positive in a man, Rh-conflict develops when the child inherits his father's Rh. That is, it is a condition in which the fetuses and mothers are different. It occurs more often in the second pregnancy, when preventive measures are not taken to combat the development of the immuno-conflict.
Future mammies should know that Rh-conflict can provoke the development of hemolytic disease of the newborn. This is the state when the mother's antibodies penetrate the bloodstream of the unborn child, destroying its red blood cells. Heavy forms of hemolytic disease with life are incompatible.
Titer of antibodies as a prognosis of fetal health
Pregnant women with a minus Rh factor at registration in the women's consultation must undergo a test to determine the blood titer of antibodies. Their absence indicates that it is possible to avoid the development of an immune-conflict pregnancy, provided that the antiresus immunoglobulin is administered in a timely manner. This drug prevents the formation of antibodies in the blood of a future mother. Such prophylaxis is usually carried out on the 28-32 week of bearing the baby. A repeat examination for the determination of the antibody titer of a woman with a minus Rh factor is similar between 28 and 36 weeks of pregnancy and within a month after childbirth.
If, when registering for women, they detect antibodies in the blood, then the risk for the fetus is constantly monitored. It is determined by the antibody titer throughout the gestation period.
Until 28 weeks, such a survey is conducted at least once every four weeks, then until 36 weeks - once every 14 days, and after 36 - weekly.
The higher the antibody titer, the greater the risk of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). That is why the early delivery is indicated with an increase in the antibody titer by 4 times with a re-examination or detection of symptoms of HDN during ultrasound examination of the fetus.
In case of Rhesus-conflict pregnancy, such ultrasound up to 30 weeks is carried out once a month, after this period - twice a month. So, the antibody titer is a way of predicting the development of hemolytic disease of crumbs.