One of the mandatory methods of examination is a biochemical blood test. Diagnosis of blood allows you to control the functionality of many systems and the work of internal organs, as well as assess the balance of microelements in the body of a future mother.
How and when do blood biochemistry take place?
The first time a woman undergoes biochemical diagnostics of blood when she is registered in a hospital. Then the procedure is repeated for 30 weeks of pregnancy, but if necessary, biochemistry can be prescribed earlier.
Before taking the test and the last meal should take at least 12 hours. To make the result as accurate as possible, in addition to eating, doctors also recommend that you refrain from drinking (even water) and chewing gum before collecting blood. The procedure is mainly carried out in the morning, and the blood is taken from the ulnar vein.
The main indicators of biochemical blood test
From the first days of conception in the female body, changes occur at the level of metabolic processes. That is why a blood test allows you to assess the health of a future mother and timely detect abnormal abnormalities.
So, the main indicators of biochemical research are the concentration of protein, lipids, carbohydrates, microelements.
If we talk about protein metabolism, then the values ??within 63-83 g / m are considered normal.
In the third trimester the protein content may be slightly reduced - 55-65 g / l, but this concentration is the norm. The protein fractions are divided into several types: albumins, alpha, beta and gamma globulins. Their quantitative index and correlation help determine the work or disruption of the internal organs. If the level of protein in the blood goes beyond the norm, then, in the body, pathological changes occur. The main cause of this phenomenon can be dehydration.
Lipids (better known as fats) are divided into four main types: cholesterol, triglycerin, phospholipids and fatty acids.
The first type (cholesterol) is considered the most important indicator of fat metabolism. The substance is a building material for cells and an active participant in the synthesis of sex hormones, choleic acids and calciferol (vitamin D). The norm is 1, 15-5, 8 mmol / l, but during the period of bearing the baby the level can be in the range of 6, 2 mmol / l. High cholesterol can be a sign of the development of atherosclerosis.
Carbohydrate metabolism provides energy for the body. To energy sources is also glucose, which is a vital component of cells. During pregnancy, the indicator is from 3, 5 to 4, 0 mmol / l.
Also, during the gestation of the baby, the need for insulin - a hormone produced by the pancreas - increases. With a low content in pregnant women, gestational diabetes can develop, so they are assigned an additional blood test for glucose (approximately 24-28 weeks).
Enzymes (or specific proteins) accelerate the biochemical reaction in the body. Their number is estimated in hundreds, since in each process a certain type of catalyst participates, but only a few dozen are taken into account in the biochemistry of the blood.
The level of alanine aminotransferase in women is up to 32 U / l. If the pregnancy rates exceed the norm, then this is a sign of a pathological process in the kidneys and liver.
The level of aspartate aminotransferase is considered to be normal within 30 U / l. Any excess of the norm indicates a significant burden and development of gestosis.
The alkaline phosphatase in the blood during pregnancy reaches 240 U / l. Deviations from this indicator may indicate a disease of the bone system and liver.
Amylase is a pancreatic enzyme. At an elevated level of this substance (more than 50 U / l), dysfunction of the pancreas is determined.
Also, the biochemical blood test takes into account the parameters of pigments: bile (bilirubin, urobilinogen) and red (porphyrins). Elevated levels of substances can indicate problems with the liver and bile ducts.
The content of nitrogenous substances allows us to determine the functionality of the renal system. Basically, the study takes into account the indices of urea and creatine. An increased amount of the first (more than 6, 3 mmol / l) during pregnancy signals a kidney disease, the second (more than 70 ?mol / l) - a decrease in the functionality of the internal organ.
Microelements play an important role in the biochemical reactions occurring in the body. When examining the blood, the indicators of such elements are taken into account:
- Iron - transports oxygen. Normal when bearing a baby is considered to be an indicator of 8, 95-30, 4 ?mol / l. With its deficiency, women develop anemia.
- Sodium - regulates water-electrolyte balance and neuromuscular excitability. The reduced level of the substance (less than 136 mmol / l) causes weakness and development of neurological pathologies.
- Potassium (normal - 3, 5-5, 5 mmol / l) - the most important component of almost all cells of the body. An elevated indicator indicates renal dysfunction or drug overdose, a lower rate occurs with vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and a disturbed heart rhythm.
- Calcium is the building material for bones. The norm is 2, 20-2, 55 mmol / l. But with pregnancy, the level may drop, because as part of the mother's reserves it is used to form the baby's skeletal system. If the result showed a deficit of this substance, then it is necessary to replenish its stock with the help of medicines.
- Phosphorus - provides a normal formation of the bone system and teeth. For a pregnant woman, the parameters within 1, 0-1, 4 mmol / l are normal. With its high content, dysfunction of parathyroid glands and renal system is observed.
When examining a blood, a doctor based on the individual characteristics of the patient and the course of pregnancy can increase or reduce the number of items examined.