Method for dividing into blood groups
In order to calculate this, you need to know exactly the blood groups of future parents. By the way, the reverse option is possible: knowing your blood group, you can calculate and possible blood groups of parents. But let us dwell on the definition of the blood type of the baby.
Antigens are substances used to determine the blood group. They are proteins, which are part of red blood cells (red blood cells). Another Karl Landsteiner, a scientist from Austria, divided the red blood cells into two categories, depending on their composition, that is, the presence of certain antigens. In the first there are antigens of group A, in the second - antigens of group B. The scientist has allocated a separate group of erythrocytes, which generally do not have antigens in their composition. The third group was designated 0 (zero). Over time, followers of Karl Landsteiner discovered the fourth group, which contained both antigens A and antigens B. It became the conclusion of the classification of blood groups.
So, based on the research of Karl Landsteiner, the ABO system was created. This system is still used by physicians.
It divides people's blood into four groups in this way:
- the first group does not contain antigens A and B;
- The second group is carriers of antigens A;
- The third group - carriers of antigens B;
- The fourth group is carriers of antigens A and B.
By the way, the Austrian scientist combined different antigens with each other. The result of such compounds was the conclusion that not all antigens are compatible with each other. Moreover, certain combinations are a deadly threat to carriers of a certain group. The research of Karl Landsteiner was a progressive step towards blood transfusions. This, in turn, has allowed to avoid not only the loss of blood, but also the lives of people. In our time, patients who are badly in need of donor blood, pour, mainly, the blood of their own group.
How the child inherits the blood group from the parents
You should know that during the life of a person his blood group does not change.
A newborn inherits from his father and mother a blood group in such a way that he receives 1 antigen from both. Understanding this scheme allows you to predict possible combinations of antigens in the blood of a future child.
Antigens in blood groups stand in pairs (one from the father and the mother). Here are the combinations:
- the first group is 00;
- the second group is A0 or AA;
- the third group is B0 or ??BB;
- The fourth group is BA or AB.
When combining different blood groups, it is possible to calculate the probable combination of antigens in the blood of a future child and his blood group. For example, if both parents have a fourth blood group, their future baby may have the following combinations of antigens: BB, AA, AB. He may have a second, third and fourth blood group. But the first group is impossible in principle, since these genes can not be taken from anywhere. It should be noted that there are exceptions to this rule too: very rarely children are born with an impossible combination of antigens - this is called a mutation.
The axiom of blood group inheritance by a child is called Mendel's law.
According to him, the following options for combining blood groups of parents and their results are possible:
- first group + first = first group;
- second group + second = first or second;
- third group + third = first or third;
- the fourth group + the fourth = the second, the third or the fourth;
- first group + second = first or second;
- first group + third = first or third;
- second group + third = first, second, third, fourth;
- the first group + the fourth = the second or the third;
- second group + fourth = second, third or fourth;
- the third group + the fourth = the second the third, the fourth.
So, the baby's blood type depends on the blood groups of the parents, and this characteristic is predicted.