The main hormonal disorders leading to miscarriages are abnormalities in the functions of the ovaries and thyroid gland, as well as the increase in the production in the female body of male sex hormones (hyperandrogenia). Often, these hormonal abnormalities are observed simultaneously.
Usually, when miscarriage occurs, it is a matter of erased forms of endocrine disorders that do not have distinct symptoms. As a rule, these disorders do not manifest themselves in any way, but during pregnancy they lead to disruption of the mechanisms ensuring its preservation.
Dysfunctions of the ovaries can be congenital, and may also result from abortion, inflammatory diseases of the genital organs or impaired function of the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, thyroid gland. Most often there is a lack of progesterone - a hormone necessary to maintain pregnancy in the early stages. A decrease in the level of progesterone causes a threat of abortion. In some cases, both the progesterone level and estrogen level may be initially lowered. The latter, in particular, affect the growth and development of the uterus. With a shortage of estrogens, there is underdevelopment of the uterus and its mucous membrane - the endometrium. After fertilization, a fetal egg is introduced into the endometrium, where the placenta begins to form. If the endometrium is not developed enough, the process of embryo implantation into the uterus wall may be disrupted, which will lead to miscarriage. Increasing the level of androgens also leads to a decrease in the level of estrogen and often causes miscarriage or an undeveloped in the early pregnancy.
Thyroid dysfunction often leads to ovarian dysfunction, and more serious disorders can cause severe abnormalities in fetal development.
Inflammatory diseases of the genital organs
Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the genital organs (chlamydia, trichomoniasis, mycoplasmosis, the presence of other infectious agents, for example, group B Streptococcus, viral infections) are the most common causes of miscarriage. Causing an inflammatory process in the vaginal mucosa and cervical canal, the pathogens rise to the upper parts, infecting the walls of the uterus, the fallopian tubes, and during pregnancy - the membranes and the placenta. As a result, the integrity of the fetal bladder is broken, premature amniotic fluid flows, placental insufficiency develops, miscarriage occurs. Often, infections are the cause of premature birth, impaired fetal supply of nutrients, intrauterine infection and various malformations.
The problem is the complexity of detecting infectious diseases of the genital tract. It is no accident that they are called hidden infections: many of them do not cause any symptoms and unpleasant sensations. Identification of these pathogens is often difficult due to the fact that reliable methods for determining them are quite expensive. Unfortunately, hidden infections are widespread, especially among young people, so some doctors are engaged in overdiagnosis, revealing the disease, even where it is not. Specialists who are concerned with the problem of miscarriage know what harm can be caused by irrational or inadequate treatment of hidden infections.
The general inflammatory diseases and acute infections in the first half of pregnancy (influenza, rubella, tonsillitis, viral hepatitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, etc.) can also lead to termination of pregnancy.
Pathological changes in the genitals
Anomalies of the development of the uterus - underdeveloped (genital infantilism), unicorn or bicornic uterus, the presence of a septum in the uterine cavity, the doubling of the genital organs - often combined with a low level of sex hormones, which leads to inferiority of the muscular layer and the mucous membrane of the uterus. Endometrial injury after artificial abortion or severe inflammation in the uterus not only lead to mucosal damage, but also to the formation of intrauterine fusion, and also reduce the sensitivity of the endometrium to sex hormones. This makes it difficult to introduce the embryo into the lining of the uterus and often leads to miscarriage.
Myoma of the uterus (benign tumor from the muscular tissue of the uterus) increases the risk of miscarriage.
With ischemic-cervical insufficiency, the isthmus and cervix can not cope with the increasing burden (growing fetus, amniotic fluid) and begin to unfold prematurely. This condition is the result of cervical injuries in abortions and complicated labor, as well as hormonal disorders. Symptoms of premature opening of the cervix are stitching pain and a feeling of raspiraniya in the vagina. The tone of the uterus can be normal at the same time. Soon, the membranes of the fetal bladder become infected, the autopsy or contractions begin - and miscarriage occurs. With ischemic-cervical insufficiency, miscarriages occur, as a rule, in late terms - after 16 weeks.
Chronic diseases of the mother
Heart defects, hypertension, kidney disease, diabetes, anemia disrupt the function of the placenta - providing the vital activity of the fetus. It is the pathology of the placenta in these diseases that leads to premature termination of pregnancy.
Complicated pregnancy course
The pathological conditions that arise during pregnancy can complicate its course and lead to spontaneous interruption. With such complications as late gestosis (nephropathy), placenta previa, polyhydramnios blood circulation in the placenta is disrupted, conditions for fetal development worsen. In addition, these complications can threaten the life of the mother, so often doctors are forced to interrupt pregnancy before the term of labor.
Multiple fetuses (twins, triplets) is also a risk factor for miscarriage. In this case, the intrauterine death of one of the fetuses often occurs or the conditions of its development are significantly violated. Multiple pregnancies often result in premature birth.
The state of pregnancy is accompanied by significant hormonal changes and a decrease in cellular immunity. Immunological changes prevent the rejection of the fetus as an alien organism. The role of the immunological barrier is performed by the placenta, which excludes the interaction of the blood of the mother and fetus. If normal immune mechanisms are violated, antibodies are formed in the mother's blood. They affect the blood vessels, primarily the blood vessels of the placenta, damaging them. Blood vessels form blood clots, blood supply and fetal nutrition are disturbed. These disorders can cause spontaneous miscarriage, undeveloped pregnancy, intrauterine fetal death, and pre-eclampsia.
Immunological conflict can arise as a result of incompatibility of blood of the mother and fetus by blood group or Rh factor. In this case, the fetus suffers: it develops a hemolytic disease.
In healthy women, pregnancy persists even under the influence of very strong damaging factors: fractures of the pelvic bones, bruises of the anterior abdominal wall, strongest neuropsychic shocks. However, in women who have health problems, even minor physical effects can lead to abortion. And in women with unbalanced psyche provoke a miscarriage can a strong nervous breakdown.
We can not exclude the role of socioeconomic factors in miscarriage. These are working conditions, harmful environmental factors, unfavorable living conditions. Of course, material problems and a tense emotional atmosphere can contribute to a dysfunctional pregnancy outcome.
In fact, spontaneous termination of pregnancy is a signal that everything in the maternal body is not all right. The miscarriage testifies first of all to the unsuccessful development of this pregnancy in these circumstances and does not exclude the possibility of maintaining and bearing the next pregnancy.
So, we have in general examined the reasons for the termination of pregnancy. Now it is necessary to dwell on the symptoms that you need to pay attention to, for premature termination of pregnancy, as well as any pathological condition, are characterized by their manifestations.