On the role of amniotic fluid
Without this valuable fluid, the correct development of the baby in the womb is impossible. It is the amniotic fluid that protects it from any mechanical influences, provides complete freedom of movement, takes part in the metabolism. They also protect the umbilical cord from the slightest squeezing.
It is worth noting that the amniotic fluid is always in motion, systematically updated.
As for the norms of this fluid, they depend on the period of pregnancy. Naturally, the more it is, the higher the index of the number of amniotic fluid. For example, at 10 weeks their volume is only 30 ml, at 14 weeks - 100 ml, at 37-38 weeks - up to one and a half liters. If this indicator to the end of the gestation of the baby is exceeded, then the specialists ascertain the woman's hydramnios.
About the signs of pathology
How do you know that the amount of amniotic fluid exceeds the norm? It is possible to suspect ill-being on a number of symptoms. Here they are:
- A feeling of heaviness in the stomach that does not pass.
- Prolonged malaise, permanent weakness in the body.
- Shortness of breath, which occurs as a result of high diaphragm standing.
- A sudden increase in heart rate.
- Regular and extensive swelling of the lower limbs.
- The abdomen at the level of the navel reaches 100 or 120 centimeters.
- Cover the skin of the abdomen with coarse stretch marks.
- Regular and distinct gurgling inside the abdomen, which physicians call fluctuation.
On the dangers of polyhydramnios
There are two forms of this pathology. More dangerous - sharp. It is characterized by the fact that the amount of amniotic fluid sharply and rapidly increases. The process can take place literally for several days or even hours. The future mother sharply increases the size of the abdomen. At the same time, all the time, there is discomfort and a slight pain in the lower back, the groin area, in the lower abdomen. A future mother with acute polyhydramnios feels the tension of the walls of the uterus, and swelling of the anterior abdominal wall is possible, which is visible visually.
The second form of polyhydramnios is chronic. From the previous differs gradual increase in the amount of water. But chronic pathology can lead to many real complications for the development of the baby. Here they are:
- Premature abortion. According to statistics, this happens in 28% of all future mothers with this pathology.
- Abundant uncontrollable vomiting - threatens dehydration and hypoxia of the fetus. This phenomenon is observed in a third of all women with polyhydramnios.
- Pregnancy of the fetus is diagnosed in 6% of all pregnant women with this diagnosis.
- Fetoplacental insufficiency with the onset of chronic fetal hypoxia (sometimes it dies).
- Complex malformations of the central nervous system of the unborn child, pathology of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Abundant bleeding. In acute forms of pathology, they are observed in 41% of pregnant women, in chronic - in 6%.
- Dangerous late gestosis. They threaten 5-20% of patients with polyhydramnios.
- If it turns out, that the cause of such polyhydramnios was the infectious process, it is possible intrauterine infection of the fetus.
- Fall of the handle, legs, umbilical cord of the fetus during delivery. Polyhydramnios is a real indication for caesarean section, because as a result of this pathology the child assumes the wrong position - it can be pelvic, transverse, oblique.
Because of the strong and sharp overstretch of the walls of the uterus, the woman may weaken the labor, premature aging, and sometimes the placental abruption. After delivery, bleeding and other complications can occur.
Causes of polyhydramnios during pregnancy
To promote the appearance of pathology in a pregnant woman can diabetes, kidney disease, some infectious and cardiovascular diseases. Rhesus-conflict in the mother and the unborn child is another reason for polyhydramnios.
Pathology develops as a result of too large a fetus and with the vices of its development.