Causes of intrauterine growth retardation
Such children are often referred to as & ldquo; small & rdquo; . In 30% of cases, they are born as a result of premature birth, that is, up to 37 weeks of pregnancy, and only 5% of cases - with full term pregnancy.
Children are born small not only because of the delay in intrauterine development. Sometimes light weight is simply a physiological feature of the child, which is inherited. After all, a small mother, most likely, a child will be born small. Or maybe such features of the body structure are characteristic of his father.
Diagnosis & bdquo; intrauterine growth retardation & rdquo; even after childbirth, when the baby is healthy. Only doctors note that this delay is related to the inherited genetics of the child, and his state of treatment does not require.
But there are other reasons for the delay in intrauterine development of the fetus. They lead to fetal hypoxia, pregnancy fading and negative consequences in the development of the child after birth.
Retardation of fetal development can be observed with insufficient oxygen and nutrients from the mother's body. Reduction in the normal dose of substances to the child and oxygen can be caused by such factors:
- Impaired development of the umbilical cord or placenta. Sometimes the placenta is misplaced. Usually, in such cases, the diagnosis is "incorrect presentation of the placenta". Also, the placenta may be too small or exfoliate.
- Diseases of the mother, preventing the intake of the right substances for the development of the fetus. These include increased blood pressure and heart disease, anemia and chronic respiratory diseases.
- Chromosome set. He also plays an important role in the development of the fetus. Failures in the chromosome set cause a delay in the development of the fetus. This is how Down syndrome develops, kidney defects.
- Bad habits. You do not need to have deep knowledge in medicine to know about the impact of smoking, alcohol, drugs on the fetus. A sick child can not have a healthy mother. This is a rare exception to the rules. And if this happens, then later such a child will lag behind in development from their peers. Even if a woman gets rid of bad habits before the onset of pregnancy, developmental delays can still happen.
- Infectious diseases transferred during pregnancy. These are rubella and syphilis, toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus. That's why doctors urgently recommend pregnancy to plan and before the forthcoming conception get rid of infectious diseases. One should be neat and legible in choosing a sexual partner during pregnancy, if there is no permanent partner.
- Balanced nutrition. All pregnant women often hear that they must eat for two. Of course, this does not mean overeating, but only strengthening control over the presence in the diet of nutrients, minerals, vitamins. Meals for two also does not mean that everything should be eaten. The daily diet of a pregnant woman is only fresh and natural foods and no fast food! And you do not need to rush to the other extreme - eating restrictions due to fear of getting better. No future mothers should diet. Malnutrition always leads to a reduction in the weight of the child, a delay in intrauterine development. So it is necessary to eat well. And if you really want to eat a chocolate bar, then eat it, and burn calories with an hour's walk.
- Medications during pregnancy. Self-assignment of a woman to herself medicines in most cases leads to a delay in intrauterine development and pathologies.
- Multiple pregnancy. Not always the woman's organism, if it is fragile, can cope with the normal bearing of twins, and even more so triplets. Therefore, the lack of nutrients in this case and causes a delay in the development of the fetus.
- Place of residence. Very often, intrauterine developmental delays occur in women who live high above sea level. There is an increased pressure, which causes the fetus to suffer from a lack of oxygen. Often such children develop slowly in the womb of the mother. They are born with a small weight.
Consequences of intrauterine growth retardation
During the 9 months the future mother is going through about the health of her baby. The fear of problems and deviations most often causes these deviations. After all, nervousness, stress and, sometimes, winding themselves up for no reason have a bearing on the child. He can feel it all. And our thoughts materialize. Therefore, one should think only of the good and imagine a strong, healthy baby growing and normally feeling in the womb.
As for the diagnosis of "delayed development of the fetus," not everything is so terrible.
Yes, violations can occur during the bearing of the child and after his birth. But the level of today's medicine is able to solve almost all the problems of mother and child.
The degree of risk in case of delayed development of the baby depends on the cause of its occurrence. If this is a factor of heredity, and the baby is just small parents, then even think about the consequences of the diagnosis is not worth it.
The risk of problems depends on the period of pregnancy on which doctors make this diagnosis, and on the period in which a boy or girl is born.
A higher risk for health exists in those children who are born before the due date. They are more likely to have diabetes, they are prone to infectious diseases and allergies. Therefore, they are often placed immediately after birth in special cells. This is an important measure to support and maintain a healthy life of the baby.
Children with this diagnosis are prone to fullness and high blood pressure. But this is not a sentence, but only assumptions, inclinations. Therefore, monitoring the child's health, regular visits to a child's doctor and good nutrition will help avoid any problems in the development of such children. And, of course, it is better if these babies are fed breast milk at least up to 6 months.
It should be noted that a lot of kids, who at one time diagnosed with delayed development, after birth, gain weight well and develop no worse than their peers.
Symptoms of delayed growth and development of the fetus
Symptoms of intrauterine growth retardation (HRV) may not appear in the future mother. She can not even suspect this diagnosis on her own. Only a systematic observation of his obstetrician-gynecologist helps to identify and cure the disease in time.
There is an opinion that a small increase in weight of a pregnant woman is a symptom of an EHDP. Sometimes it really is. If the future mom limits food intake to 1500 calories, is fond of diets and takes more care of her figure, rather than about the health of the baby's future, then, of course, the chances of delaying the intrauterine development of the baby are increasing.
There is a reverse trend. A woman adds a lot of weight, and the child does not develop properly. Therefore, a small increase in the weight of a pregnant woman is not an exact factor indicating an EHDP.
But what is more accurate can testify about the above diagnosis, so it's lethargy wiggling the child. They are rarer and weaker. This should be reported to the doctor in charge.
How to prevent fetal fetal arrest
Any doctor will tell you that the best prevention of fetal growth retardation is pregnancy planning. The possibility to identify chronic infections and chronic diseases before the onset of conception, an accurate diagnosis of the state of the body - this is the prevention of problems in the future. It is better to undergo a full examination six months before the planned pregnancy in order to be able to treat the disease. Even caries and problems of the genitourinary sphere should not be left without attention. In healthy parents and children will be healthier, with strong immunity.
Regular visit to the doctor who supervises you, strict implementation of his recommendations, timely delivery of analyzes plays an important role in the prevention of the ZVRP.
The correct mode of work and a full sleep are also prevention of intrauterine growth retardation. If a woman does not have the opportunity to sleep during the day, then at least 20 minutes to lie with her eyes closed, completely relaxed.
And, of course, calm. The stresses of even a healthy person are knocked out of the usual rut, and for a pregnant woman they are a double blow. So, the diagnosis of "delay of intrauterine development of the fetus" should not be considered a verdict. If you have a good doctor, you are positive about improving the baby's condition and do everything possible for this, then there is no reason to worry. All will be well, and the child will be born healthy.