Among the hormones involved in pregnancy, estradiol is perhaps the most important and active. Therefore, with the onset of pregnancy, his level rises to fulfill the role assigned to him in this period.
What is estradiol?
Estradiol (17? -estradiol; dihydroxyestrin; dihydroxy-estratriene; dihydrotheline; 1, 3, 5-estratriene-3, 17? -diol; E2) - one of the strongest female sex hormones, the most biologically active hormone from the group of estrogens, belonging to the steroid. Under his influence, the sexual system of a woman, her internal organs (in particular, the uterus), and the shape of the figure are formed. He is responsible for the reproductive function, with the participation of estradiol is established and regulated the menstrual cycle, he determines the sexual desire and sexual behavior of the lady. Even the deposition of fat in problem areas (which is typical only for women) is due to estradiol.
If the level of estradiol in a woman's blood is lowered - she can not become pregnant. What is interesting is that, at a lower level of this hormone, men also experience infertility. And during pregnancy, the level of estradiol in a woman's blood rises to the maximum levels. He constantly grows, reaches a peak several days before the birth and then returns to normal (on the fourth day after the birth of the child). With age, the level of estradiol in a woman's blood drops, and after the onset of menopause equates to what is contained in the blood of a man.
Why pregnant estradiol?
In the body of every person, this hormone is normal. In men - in a small amount, for women - in a much larger. But the maximum level of estradiol increases during pregnancy. Because it is necessary for her to be born. In ordinary life of an ordinary woman, estradiol is produced by the adrenals and ovaries - from the male sex hormone testosterone, and depending on the phase of the cycle, its blood level fluctuates. But with the onset of pregnancy, the level of estradiol appreciably increases and throughout the term it grows: it is produced by the placenta, and with the approach of childbirth more and more.
The importance of estradiol in the period of bearing a child is very large. This is the second hormone together with progesterone, which is responsible for bearing the fetus, which means it is the most important hormone in this period. It ensures the growth and development of the uterus throughout the term, regulates the state of the uterine vessels and ensures normal circulation in them. However, estradiol increases blood coagulation, and this can be of good service during labor, reducing the risk of bleeding. Under the influence of estradiol even the character and behavior of the pregnant woman changes: irritability, the known nervousness of the future mother - all this is his handiwork. Even puffiness, which affects most pregnant women, is provoked by an elevated level of this hormone - it delays sodium and water in tissues.
The amount of estradiol can increase with increasing body weight, since fat cells also produce it. This may affect the intake of certain medications. Nevertheless, the elevated level is not as bad as the lower one. If estradiol is not enough - this is a threat to pregnancy.
The most important thing that depends on it - the placenta. A low level of estradiol indicates an inadequate or disrupted development and a possible threat of miscarriage.
If you are assigned an estradiol or other hormone assay, you must follow certain rules to obtain the correct data:
- blood must be donated in the morning;
- tests for hormones must be given on an empty stomach;
- Limit physical activity the day before, exclude sports and sex;
- It is forbidden to smoke and drink alcohol;
- Do not allow nervous overexertion and excitability.
Violation of any of the rules may affect the analysis. Also tell your doctor if you are taking any medications - you may have to cancel them.
If the level of estradiol in pregnancy is lowered - it is artificially increased with the help of medications (eg, Proginova or Estrofem). Depending on the diagnosis, the form of the drug is selected (capsules, vaginal balls, patches, injections).
Also, estradiol preparations are used to stimulate childbirth, if a woman overpowers pregnancy.