Why does hypoxia occur?
In medicine, hypoxia refers to the complex changes in the fetus that result from a lack of oxygen supply. This deviation in the development of the embryo according to statistics is approximately 10% of cases. The main causes of hypoxia in the fetus are smoking and illness of the future mother. This is mainly anemia (reduction of hemoglobin), diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, kidneys; diabetes. Also, hypoxia is facilitated by the "perenashivanie" pregnancy, placental pathology, abnormalities of labor and its complications.
The cause of hypoxia can become the diseases of the fetus itself: hemolytic disease, intrauterine infection, malformations, squeezing the head during childbirth.
Being in the mother's womb, the fetus can not breathe itself and gets oxygen for growth and development from the mother. It happens through the placenta. Oxygen from the mother's blood enters the blood of the future child. When mummy needs any useful substances, then the fetus will experience their deficiency. This also applies to oxygen.
A severe degree of hypoxia can develop into ischemia, tissue necrosis and end up lethal.
Types and consequences of hypoxia
At different terms of bearing a child, the lack of oxygen has different consequences. For example, in the first trimester hypoxia can slow the development of the embryo. In the third trimester, it leads to a delay in the growth of the baby, affects the central nervous system, and also negatively affects its adaptive capabilities.
Doctors divide fetal hypoxia into 2 species depending on the duration of the disease. Acute hypoxia develops suddenly, and chronic is diagnosed for a long time. The first appears more often during childbirth and less often during pregnancy, and chronic hypoxia is typical of the period of gestation.
Symptoms and Diagnostics
Symptoms of oxygen starvation in the fetus in early pregnancy are heart palpitations. In late terms, the opposite phenomenon is characteristic: slow heartbeat. Light hypoxia is characterized by a more active fetal movement. In severe form, activity on the contrary slows down, movements become rare.
Diagnosis of oxygen starvation is done on the basis of assessing the condition of the fetus. So, using the auscultation method (listening to the fetal heartbeat with a stethoscope), the doctor estimates the heart rate, the sonority of heart sounds and the presence of noises. But this method can give inaccurate results.
Cardiotocography (CTG) for the diagnosis of hypoxia is used most often. It is carried out with the help of an ultrasonic sensor, which is fixed on the abdomen of a pregnant woman at a special point. Herewith, cardiac contractions are fixed in writing. With this diagnosis, heart rate is of great importance.
Another method of diagnosing fetal hypoxia is dopplerometry. This study of blood flow in the vessels of the uterus, umbilical cord and fetus, that is, in the system "mother - placenta - fetus." Such a study allows us to assess the degree of hypoxia and predict its consequences.
Prevention and treatment of fetal hypoxia
Prophylaxis of oxygen starvation is based on timely diagnosis and treatment of complications of pregnancy. The best prevention on the part of a woman is the absence of bad habits, the right rhythm and way of life, staying in the open air and regular observation by a doctor.
Chronic hypoxia of the fetus is treated in a comprehensive manner, starting with the underlying disease of the mother. Next, a therapy is performed to normalize the placental circulation.
Pregnant women are recommended to comply with bed rest to improve the blood supply to the uterus. In addition, treatment is aimed at reducing the viscosity of blood and reducing the tendency to form blood clots. For this, a pregnant woman is prescribed rheopolyglucin, curantyl, low doses of aspirin. Also, for treatment, Essential-forte or lipostabil is used to improve the permeability of cells to oxygen, vitamins E and C.
When complex therapy does not lead to an improvement in the condition, if the fetus achieves vitality, emergency cesarean delivery is resorted to.
A pregnant woman should remember that smoking is a slow killing of a child. After all, nicotine causes hypoxia of the fetus. Planning pregnancy, keep in mind that smoking the future dad affects the development of oxygen starvation. Show love and responsibility from the womb! And let the fetus breathe great!