Note that fetoplacental insufficiency is diagnosed to varying degrees in every third expectant mother, therefore the given problem is rather actual. With FPN in a pregnant woman, structural changes and impaired functions of the placenta occur, which causes hypoxia in the fetus and adversely affects its development.
Doctors divide fetoplacental insufficiency in terms of pregnancy, in its current, in severity and in the form of fetal disorders. Let's consider each of the categories in detail.
FPN by timing
Primary fetoplacental insufficiency is diagnosed when the attachment and structure of the placenta is broken up to 4 months of pregnancy. Most often occurs on the background of hormonal disorders, changes in the uterus, early abortions.
Secondary fetoplacental insufficiency occurs with a fully formed placenta at a term after 4 months. Its causes are detachment of the placenta, gestosis, inflammatory changes in the structure of the placenta in infectious diseases.
FPN in its course
Fetoplacental insufficiency can take place in acute and chronic form. In the first case, premature detachment of the placenta is due to a sharp violation of placental uterine blood flow, in the second - the changes are gradual.
FPN by the type of fetal development disorders
The compensated form of fetoplacental insufficiency does not have a negative effect on the fetus, therefore it develops normally. The subcompensated FPN is characterized by a delay in fetal growth. Decompensated FPN - the fetus lags behind in development for a month or more, there are severe violations of the heartbeat, the likelihood of the death of a child is high.
FPN by severity of impairment
The first degree is characterized by normal blood flow in the umbilical arteries, but there may be abnormalities in the uterine blood flow. The first "b" degree indicates a pathology of blood flow in the umbilical arteries. The second degree is diagnosed in disorders in the umbilical and uterine arteries. Third, critical values ??were achieved in the umbilical arteries.
Causes of FPN
There are a number of factors that provoke fetoplacental insufficiency in pregnancy:
- serious chronic diseases of the expectant mother: thyroid pathology, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, bronchial asthma;
- infections of the respiratory tract, venereal and viral diseases;
- Complicated pregnancy (threat of miscarriage, Rh-conflict, gestosis);
- incorrect attachment of the placenta;
- pathology of the uterus (adenomyosis, myoma, chronic endometritis);
- abortions, spontaneous miscarriages;
- stress and fatigue;
- smoking during pregnancy;
- poor ecology and living conditions;
- woman's age: after 35 years and up to 18 years.
Diagnosis and treatment of FPN
Fetoplacental insufficiency is diagnosed only with the help of special studies. However, women who have encountered such a pathology, note that the main sign of FPN is first excessive activity of the baby, and then a decrease in the number of his movements.
Absence of abdominal growth in the dynamics, inconsistency of the height of the uterine bottom of pregnancy - also are signs of FPN. Diagnosis of fetoplacental insufficiency is carried out with the help of ultrasound, as well as dopplerograph and cardiotocograph.
Unfortunately, there are no drugs that allow instantaneous cure of FPN. The main goal of the therapy is to improve gas exchange, restore utero-placental circulation and normalize the tone of the uterus. From medicinal preparations can be appointed Curantil, Actovegin, Ginipral, droppers with magnesia.
Severe forms of fetoplacental insufficiency require immediate intensive treatment in a hospital setting. Treatment is carried out for a month, followed by a doctor's observation for 6-8 weeks.