About the purpose of the test
Its full name is an oral glucose tolerance test (PGTT). It makes it possible to detect violations of carbohydrate metabolism during pregnancy. In other words, this study diagnoses how well the female body regulates blood glucose levels.
The test determines the presence of gestational diabetes mellitus (DMD) in a future mother. It is associated with pregnancy and can develop even in those pregnant women, women who are not at risk. After all, in itself, bearing a child is an important factor that often provokes violations of carbohydrate metabolism. Since gestational diabetes in most cases passes without noticeable symptoms, such tests should be carried out in order to ensure, so that pathology does not have negative consequences for the pregnant woman and her unborn child.
About carrying out of PGTT
The study is usually conducted between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The optimal period is 24-26 weeks.
First of all, when a woman is registered, she gets venous blood to assess the glucose level. The result below 5, 1 mmol / l is considered a good indicator, the norm. If it is above 5, 1 mmol / l, but does not exceed 7, 0 mmol / l, then the pregnant woman is diagnosed with "gestational diabetes mellitus". When this figure in a future mother exceeds 7, 0 mmol / l, then it puts a preliminary diagnosis of "manifest (newly diagnosed) diabetes mellitus."
If a woman is at risk for GDM, then the test for glucose tolerance is done immediately when registered in a women's consultation. Then it is re-run between 24 and 28 weeks.
As for the preparation of a woman for this study, three days before it is necessary to eat at least 150 grams of carbohydrates a day, not to spend unloading days. It is forbidden during this period to take multivitamins, glucocorticoids, iron preparations with carbohydrates. Otherwise, the result of the research will be simply unreliable.
The test is carried out in the morning on an empty stomach. It is necessary that after the last meal took 8-14-hours. Water while drinking is allowed. Glucose-tolerant test is not performed in such cases:
- With symptoms of early toxicosis.
- In acute infectious and inflammatory diseases.
- When chronic pancreatitis worsens.
- When observing bed rest.
The test for glucose tolerance is carried out in stages. At the first stage, the woman takes venous blood, and measures the level of glucose in her. If immediately the result exceeds 5, 1 mmol / l, then at this stage the analysis stops. A woman is diagnosed with gestational diabetes. When the sugar level is normal, then the pregnant woman is given a glucose solution. This is 75 grams of dry matter, dissolved in 250-300 ml of warm water. This liquid is very sweet, so many women can provoke nausea, and sometimes vomiting. Do not drink glucose solution in one gulp.
After an hour or two, the pregnant woman is again taking blood. All this time she should be at rest. It is forbidden to walk, walk.
Diagnosis of "gestational diabetes" is established if the result of the analysis after the second blood sample exceeds 10, 0 mmol / l.
Sometimes a test for glucose tolerance to pregnant women is prescribed up to 32 weeks of age. They are often interested in how much such research is safe for the child. Experiencing this is not worth it. The test is absolutely safe for the pregnant and fetus.
First of all, you need to know that a solution of anhydrous glucose can be compared with carbohydrate breakfast. Only the concentration of the substance causes discomfort in the state of health. It can not provoke diabetes mellitus. But the refusal of analysis can have serious consequences for the mother and the future child. After all, then it will be impossible to take steps to normalize blood sugar.