They will also send blood donating "to hormones" for women planning to become pregnant, at the age of "35". This is due to the fact, that over the years the woman's functional activity in the ovaries is noticeably reduced. In some cases, this causes infertility and requires an artificial increase in the amount of certain hormones, primarily progesterone.
There is no doubt that you will have to take hormone analysis if:
- there are irregularities in the menstrual cycle;
- there are signs of hyperandrogenism (increased hair flow, acne), obesity;
- there were pregnancies with an unsuccessful outcome (regress, miscarriage) earlier;
- Pregnancy does not occur within a year or more.
What is a hormone?
A hormone is a biologically highly active substance produced by glands of internal secretion.x, as the time of day or the time of the last meal. Hormonal failures - this is not an empty phrase, behind it are serious health problems. To determine the state of the hormonal background, laboratory tests (analyzes) are carried out. Determining the concentration of certain hormones in the blood, taking into account the phase of the menstrual cycle, the doctor determines the condition of the reproductive system and, in case of violations, prescribes the necessary treatment. Female sex hormones are commonly called estrogens, and male hormones are called androgens.
Norm of hormones in pregnancy planning
Below is a list and description of sex hormones affecting successful conception, safe pregnancy and healthy childbirth.
Follicle-stimulating hormone, abbreviated as FSH, is produced by the pituitary gland and is one of the main hormones regulating the process of growth of the follicle (ovule) in the ovary. He is also responsible for the formation of estrogen - a hormone, under the influence of which the uterus grows in the endometrium.
In the body of a woman FSH provokes ovulation, so its maximum level is observed in the middle of the cycle. They take it for 3-7 days of the menstrual cycle. If it is necessary to determine whether the follicle ripens, FSH is given for 5-8 days.
In men, FSH increases the concentration of testosterone in the blood, thereby ensuring the maturation of spermatozoa. Disorders from this hormone lead to infertility. In men, in contrast to women, FSH is excreted continuously and evenly. The increase in follicle-stimulating hormone indicates a deficiency of the function of the sexual glands, alcoholism, orchitis, menopause, tumors of the pituitary gland. Decrease - the hypofunction of the pituitary or hypothalamus, as well as pregnancy.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is also produced by the pituitary gland. In women, it ensures the completion of the process of egg maturation in the follicle, ovulation, estrogen secretion and the formation of the yellow body. The greatest amount of this hormone is ovulation. It stimulates the production of the main hormone of pregnancy - progesterone. Surrenders at the same time as FSH.
In men, LH increases the concentration of testosterone, which contributes to the maturation of spermatozoa.
Determining the cause of infertility, primarily focus on the ratio of LH and FSH.
Another hormone of the pituitary gland, prolactin, can suppress the formation of FSH. It directly affects the implementation of ovulation. If prolactin is not normal (no difference in the greater or lesser side), then the follicle may not develop, respectively, ovulation will not occur. And without ovulation, as we know, conception is not possible.
To determine the amount of prolactin in a woman's blood, the analysis is done in 1 and 2 phases of the menstrual cycle. Given that prolactin is a hormone of stress, conducting tests, it is necessary to strictly observe certain conditions. For example, blood is taken on an empty stomach and only in the morning, before manipulation the patient should lie down about half an hour.
In daily life, prolactin normally rises during sleep, exercise, and sexual intercourse. But in men, an excessive increase in his level can disrupt sexual function. Increase of prolactin occurs in pregnancy, the syndrome of galactorrhea-amenorrhea, pituitary tumors, hypothalamic pathology, hypothyroidism, renal insufficiency, and a decrease in hypophysial insufficiency.
Estradiol plays a huge role in the development of the mucous membrane of the uterus and preparing it for pregnancy. It ensures the formation and regulation of menstrual function, the development of the egg. The greatest amount of estradiol in a woman's body is observed for a day and a half before ovulation. After that, his level is reduced. Estradiol is produced under the influence of other hormones: FSH, LH and prolactin (in women - in the ovaries, in men - in the testicles and maintained at a constant low level). Blood for the content of this hormone is surrendered throughout the menstrual cycle.
If the level of estradiol is raised in the body, then this may indicate the presence of estrogen-producing tumors, hyperthyroidism, liver cirrhosis. Also, the amount of this hormone increases with the intake of hormonal drugs, including oral contraceptives, as well as during pregnancy. A low level of the hormone indicates a deficiency of the function of the sex glands. Estradiol (like all estrogens) stimulates memory processes, improves mood, sleep, strengthens bone tissue, protects against atherosclerosis, improves the functioning of the sebaceous glands and the condition of the skin and hair.
"The main pregnancy hormone", "hormone motherhood" - these phrases are often used, speaking about progesterone. This is not strange, because it provides the final preparation of the uterine mucosa to attach the embryo, as well as optimal conditions for developing pregnancy. Women develop progesterone in the ovaries and adrenal glands. Often its deficiency translates into a disappointing diagnosis - infertility. Even if pregnancy occurs, its fertilized cell is not retained in the uterus for more than two to three days.
A woman who wants to become pregnant often measures basal temperature to determine the approach of ovulation. But sometimes, with a deficiency of progesterone, the basal temperature may not change. The sign of ovulation and the formation of a full-length yellow body is a tenfold increase in the level of progesterone. The lack or lack of protein significantly affects the amount of progesterone produced. To raise the level of progesterone can be with the help of vitamin therapy. The main role is played by vitamins B and E. When planning a pregnancy, it is necessary to adjust the intake of these vitamins into the body. It is also extremely important that the nutrition of the spouses be protein: eat more meat, cereals, fish, soy.
This hormone is important to check for a 19-21 day menstrual cycle.
Testosterone is a male sex hormone that is produced in small amounts in women. Like progesterone, testosterone is secreted by the ovaries and adrenal glands, and its maximum amount is noted in the luteal phase and during the ovulation period. Unlike the above hormones, you can determine its level absolutely any day. Excess of normal concentration of this hormone can cause wrong ovulation and early miscarriage. If the male testosterone is produced in less (from the required) amount, a decrease in the quality of the sperm is diagnosed. Testosterone is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics, the psychological consciousness of sex, the maintenance of sexual function (libido and potency), the maturation of spermatozoa, the development of the skeleton and muscle mass, stimulates the bone marrow, the activity of the sebaceous glands, improves mood.
The development of testosterone affects smoking, alcohol intake, heat stress (including burns), a diet low in fat, poor nutrition. During the day the amount of testosterone is very variable. The maximum number of hormones observed at 7 am, and the minimum - at 8 pm.
Another male hormone, DEA-sulfate, forms in the adrenal gland of a woman in small quantities. With an increase in the concentration of this hormone, there is often a violation of the ovaries and infertility. It is also needed by the body of both spouses, but in different proportions. The level of this hormone is checked on any day.
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate DGA-S (DHEA-C)
Excessive hairiness in a woman in the male type is a sign of hyperandrogenism. If the patient has an increased amount of hair above the upper lip, chin, nipples, etc., in the first place, she will be sent to pass an analysis to determine the amount of DEA-S. It is determined for diagnosis of the origin of hyperandrogenia (excess of male sex hormones) in women. This hormone is synthesized in the adrenal cortex, and its level depends on the intake of medicines, physical activity, smoking, the administration and intake of glucose.
Thyroxine - free (FT4) and common (T4)
When planning a pregnancy, if there are prerequisites for infertility, it is necessary to donate blood to determine the level of thyroid hormones. These are thyroxine (T4 and FT4) and triiodothyronine (T3). It is known that in diseases of the thyroid gland, infertility often develops.
Thyroxine is the main hormone of the thyroid gland. Regulates metabolism, energy metabolism, the processes of synthesis and decomposition of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, growth, development and reproduction, oxygen exchange, body temperature.
Indicators of thyroxine decrease with fasting, malnutrition with low protein content, contact with lead, heavy physical exercises, stress, etc.
Triiodothyronine free (T3)
This hormone, like the previous one, is produced by the thyroid gland. It is less active than T4, but has its own action.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TTG)
This hormone regulates the thyroid gland. In diseases of thyroid gland, the concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone changes, and in women it is 20% higher.
The hormone of the adrenal cortex that reacts to stress (psychological, physical, cold, heat, etc.). The maximum amount of the hormone is observed during the day, the minimum - at night.
With a decrease in cortisol in women diagnosed adrenogenital syndrome.
If all of the above hormones are detected in the blood, then 17-ketosteroids are the products of the exchange of male sex hormones and are determined in the urine. The peculiarity of this analysis is that the patient collects urine throughout the day and this gives an opportunity to catch any fluctuations in the day of any male hormones. This method is very informative (even more than a blood test), but it is very important to follow the rules for collecting urine. For example, 3 days before collection and on the day of collection, food products (yellow, orange, red) are excluded from food: carrots, beets, red apples, citrus fruits (all including juices, salads, sauces, soups, etc.), vitamins. Otherwise, the indicator will be overestimated. On the eve of the study, physical activities, smoking, and stress are excluded.
All tests for hormones are given in the morning on an empty stomach.