Ovulation is the process of the release of the matured egg for the fertilization of the follicle. Clear, that without it it is not necessary to talk about the probability of conception of a child. Whether this is natural or artificial insemination, a mature egg is needed in any case. That's why when planning pregnancy, women try to determine ovulation: whether it comes, as regularly and when. This allows you to choose the most appropriate time for sexual intercourse, the purpose of which is to conceive a baby.
You can determine ovulation in several ways. Depending on the situation, choose one or the other, and best combine them among themselves for greater efficiency.
Regardless of whether your cycle is regular or not, ovulation, if this occurs, always occurs 12-16 days before the onset of menstruation. During this period, a woman can experience increased sexual desire and feel characteristic pains in the lower abdomen in the ovary region - sipping, slightly pricking.
Vaginal discharge in the ovulation period increases noticeably in quantity and becomes more viscous, thick. You can even sometimes observe small veins of blood in them. After ovulation, the amount of mucus decreases sharply.
An experienced gynecologist is also able to determine the onset of ovulation during a full-time examination. These days there is a so-called "pupil symptom": when examining the cervix in its lumen, a viscous transparent mucus is found. If you grab it with tweezers, you can see how it will stretch between the ends by a few centimeters.
Basal temperature measurement
This method of determining ovulation has been used for many generations and is quite accurate. It consists in the daily measurement of basal (i.e., rectal) temperature and plotting based on the data obtained. Measurements are made by a conventional mercury thermometer every morning at the same time, while the woman has not yet gotten out of bed. It is important that the sleep lasted no less than 6 hours. Any factors that can affect the results and slightly distort them must be necessarily marked when data is entered. These circumstances include drinking alcohol on the eve, sexual intercourse shortly before the measurement, changing microclimatic conditions, short duration of night sleep, inflammation in the genitourinary system, a rise in body temperature against the background of infectious diseases, the intake of certain medicines (containing hormones), the transferred stresses.
The results are evaluated based on indicators for at least three consecutive cycles. The basal temperature curve should show an increase in indices of 0, 5-0, 6 degrees after each ovulation. Then the temperature is kept at elevated levels until the next monthly. If it falls earlier than 10 days after ovulation, then indirectly one can judge the insufficiency of progesterone, which can be the reason for miscarriage. Preservation of measurements at high marks for more than two weeks and the absence of another menstruation can be evidence of the pregnancy that has occurred.
If you keep a graph of basal temperatures, that on the day of ovulation the indicator decreases by 0, 4-0, 6 degrees. This period is considered the most favorable for sexual intercourse.
A very convenient method of determining is a home test for ovulation. He works on the principle of a pregnancy test, only here reactants react to an elevated level of lyutenizing hormone (LH). Concentration of LH in women increases before the onset of ovulation. If the test shows two bright strips, then female fertility has reached its maximum - this is the best time for conception of the baby.
The test for ovulation can be bought at any pharmacy (the price policy of these funds is very different). Only carry out testing during the day, and not with the first portion of urine, as is done with pregnancy tests. It is often necessary to repeat the procedure for several days in a row, until an increased level of lyutenizing hormone in the urine is fixed. It is better to conduct testing at the same time to obtain more reliable data.
Another method that can be used at home and which is quite accurate is the use of a microscope. Special microscopes for these tests can be bought at the pharmacy - they are very compact and convenient.
The meaning of the test is as follows. On the eve of ovulation, the condition and composition of the woman's saliva changes under the influence of estrogens. This can be seen under a microscope - the dried saliva crystallizes, forming a specific pattern. To carry out the test, it is necessary to apply a drop of saliva on the glass (always in the morning on an empty stomach) and wait until it dries. Then consider in a microscope: a picture resembling a fern leaf will be evidence of the onset of ovulation. Before and after this effect is not visible - on the glass only chaotically scattered blurred points are visible.
The most accurate method to determine ovulation is, perhaps, ultrasound. In some cases, you can even see the moment when the egg leaves the follicle. Ultrasound can determine the so-called dominant follicle - a potential for maturation. A harbinger of ovulation can be considered an increase in the follicle in size to 18-20 mm, which after ovulation disappears, and in its place a yellow body is formed.
For the determination of ovulation, ultrasound is performed 2-3 days before the supposed start and the day after the end, and with an irregular menstrual cycle, the study is started from the 10th day of the cycle and repeated every 2-3 days.
This method of determining ovulation is the most expensive and uncomfortable, because you have to donate blood to hormones. Directly to determine the date of ovulation, it is used in extremely rare cases. But biochemical research is resorted to when it is important to determine the level of hormones, for example, to establish whether ovulation is possible in principle. When planning such a need arises quite often.
The "hormonal" method of determining ovulation is only reliable provided a regular menstrual cycle. And you have to take the tests several times throughout the cycle.
The most reliable symptom predicting the onset of ovulation in about 18-36 hours is an increase in the level of LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone). Indirectly about the held ovulation says an increase in the level of progesterone in the middle of the second phase of the menstrual cycle.
In the anovulatory cycle (when ovulation does not occur), an increase in the number of male sex hormones or a decline in female estrogen can be documented. The presence of ovulation can also be judged by the level of thyroid hormones and by the level of prolactin (produced by the pituitary gland).