What is hypertension of the uterus? Symptoms and signs
The uterus - the woman's genital organ - consists of three layers: a thin membrane film, muscle fibers and endometrium, which is covered inside the uterine cavity. Muscle fibers of the uterus have the ability to contract, that is, to come into tonus. Nature is provided so that during the period of gestation the muscles of the uterus are in a relaxed state and do not contract. But if for some reason the muscular layer of the uterus is exposed to the action of stimuli, it contracts and shrinks. This creates a certain pressure (depending on the strength of the contractions), and then talk about the hypertension of the uterus. The condition, when the muscles of the uterus during pregnancy are relaxed and calm, is called normotonus.
Since the hypertension of the uterus is a symptom of a threat of spontaneous termination of pregnancy or, in the late term, premature birth, you need to know how it manifests itself. This will allow you to turn to a specialist in time and eliminate the causes that cause hypertension. The first signs that the uterus is in increased tonus, there are pulling and unpleasant pains in the lower abdomen, as well as in the region of the waist or sacrum. Often there are pain in the pubic area. The woman experiences a feeling of bursting in the lower abdomen. In women after the first trimester, when the tummy is already quite large, there are sensations, as if the uterus is stone.
How is hypertension diagnosed in the uterus?
In order to diagnose this state, there are several methods. The simplest one is feeling by the doctor). Especially this method is informative at a later date, when the uterus is already outside the small pelvis, rather above it. Then the hypertonus can be determined through palpation of the anterior abdominal wall. The second method is ultrasound. Ultrasound is more informative in the sense that it shows the tone of the uterus that the woman does not feel. This is relevant for the so-called local tone, when not all of the uterus is tense, but some part of it. The third method is tonusometry. Conduct it with a special device, the sensor of which is applied to the woman's belly and read the information received.
What causes hypertension of the uterus during pregnancy?
There are a lot of reasons that cause hypertension of the uterus during pregnancy. For example, in the early stages of this condition, the uterus can result in a variety of hormonal disorders. Especially often the "culprit" of increased tone is the hormone progesterone, or rather, its lack.
Structural changes in the walls of the uterus, such as fibroids and endometriosis, can also cause hypertension. If a woman before pregnancy has suffered various inflammatory diseases of reproductive organs (uterus, appendages, ovaries), then, what is hypertension during pregnancy, she is likely to find out.
Also, the cause of hypertension of the uterus can be any strong emotional shock, stress, aroused fear. To this list it is necessary to add and such factors as heavy physical work, excessive activity of the pregnant woman, poor-quality and incomplete rest and sleep.
Who most often has the tone of the uterus during pregnancy?
Physicians have established that there are certain "risk groups". Related women, as a rule, have one, if not several, of the following risk factors. These are women:
- having committed abortions;
- with underdeveloped reproductive organs;
- with weak immunity;
- having inflammatory diseases of the genital organs;
- under the age of 18 and over 30;
- Frequently exposed to chemicals;
- smoking, drinking or having other bad habits;
- being in a bad relationship with her husband or other family members.
What is dangerous for hypertension of the uterus?
In the first trimester of pregnancy, increased uterine tone can cause death of the fetal egg, undeveloped pregnancy, and even miscarriage - spontaneous abortion. At later terms, hypertonicity can cause spontaneous abortion or, if the period is more than 28 weeks, premature birth. If the tonus is local, then it is especially dangerous on the wall where the placenta is attached, since in this case there is a danger of its detachment. In the early stages, for the same reason, a chorionic abruption can occur.
For a child in the womb, hypertension of the uterus is dangerous by a violation of the blood supply to the placenta. This leads to oxygen starvation (intrauterine hypoxia) and, consequently, to a delay in growth and development.
How to treat hypertension of the uterus?
If the pregnant woman has felt pain in the abdomen and the "stone" uterus, the first thing she should do is go to bed. If the tone is not strong, this simple action is enough to make the uterus relax. Nevertheless, As soon as possible, you need to inform the doctor about this fact. Especially if this happens periodically. During this period, you need to exclude any physical stress (up to going to the stores for groceries) and stress.
As a rule, the doctor, in the case of hypertension of the uterus, appoints drugs of antispasmodic action (no-shpa, papaverine), as well as sedatives (tinctures of motherwort and valerian, synthetic preparations sibazol, trioxazine, nosepam). If the tone is accompanied by contractions and pain, the pregnant woman is hospitalized.
Women in the early stages of pregnancy are prescribed morning care or djufaston. At late terms, after 16-18 weeks of pregnancy, apply ginipral, partusisten, briikanil. Often for the removal of hypertension of the uterus using the drug magne-B6.
Prevention of hypertension of the uterus during pregnancy
Given the causes of hypertension of the uterus during pregnancy, you must do everything possible to eliminate them. A woman who is carrying a child should always listen to the advice of her gynecologist and follow all his instructions. The fruits of disobedience in this case can, unfortunately, be deplorable.
Every pregnant woman with a view to preventing an increased tone of the uterus simply needs a lot of rest and try to observe psychological balance. The future mother should explain to relatives and colleagues that stress is very undesirable for her now. Do not also go on tiresome business trips. Sleep must be full. The intake of vitamin and mineral complexes is compulsory. To ensure that nothing provokes the development of hypertonia, a woman must undergo a full medical examination and, if necessary, eliminate all causes that may cause her trouble. The most important thing in these 9 months is favorable conditions for bearing crumbs. And everything else will wait.