The question of the allocation of immunological infertility as a good reason for the inability to conceive remains open. The fact is that antisperm antibodies are found in serum, cervical mucus and peritoneal fluid even in healthy women. Their number can fluctuate within 5-65%. That is, you need to look for a different, more specific reason. At the same time, many specialists prescribe a test for the presence of antibodies and try to conduct treatment that can correct their number.
The cause of immunological infertility
This deviation occurs in both men and women. As mentioned above, in women, antibodies are synthesized as a reaction to sperm. Being in the mucous membrane of the cervix (rarely in the endometrium and tubes), they cause the complete immobilization of sperm, that is, their agglutination. Antibodies are formed as a result of entering the secret of the female reproductive tract of sperm-specific antigens.
Often the appearance of AT is associated with the reaction of the immune system to various infections: genital herpes, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, urea- and mycoplasmosis. Also at their appearance chronic inflammatory disease affecting genital (cervicitis, endometritis, oophoritis), genital endometriosis. As a result of too high activity of the immune system, sperm are also attacked, whether they belong to a permanent partner or casual, there is no difference.
There are cases when a woman develops an autoimmune or allergic reaction to the antigens of the corresponding follicular fluid and the shiny shell of the follicle. In the body of a healthy male, sperm do not enter the blood, but are isolated. Therefore, the protective reaction of the body to the antigen can begin only in the presence of anatomical disorders in the form of inguinal hernia, varicocele, obstruction of the vas deferens, cryptorchidism, testicular torsion, agenesis of the vas deferens. Sexually transmitted infections, injuries and various operations on the pelvic organs or the scrotum are also dangerous. Do not pass without a trace and chronic inflammatory diseases (prostatitis, epididymitis, orchitis). All this leads to the destruction of the natural barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules, the organism perceives unfamiliar cells as hostile and defends itself.
ACAT (antisperm antibodies) are:
- spermimmobilizing, leading to a partial or complete stupor of the sperm;
- spermoagglutinating, due to which spermatozoa glue together, their speed of movement decreases (sometimes they just swing from side to side in one place). Of course, the process of fertilization becomes impossible.
Diagnosis of immunological infertility
In order to confidently diagnose "immunological infertility" specific laboratory tests are needed depending on the sex of the patient. Men must donate blood and semen for analysis for the presence of ACAT and analysis for sexually transmitted infections (sexually transmitted infections). Upon detection of any ACAT laboratory methods (MAR-test test-1W, ELISA / ELISA, etc.) Can be seen the presence of autoimmune reactions against sperm. If ACAT cover more than 50% of mobile spermatozoa, then "male immune infertility" is diagnosed. Women take blood, cervical fluid for analysis, and also carry out a series of tests for compatibility of both partners. These include:
- postcoital test (PKT) - it is desirable to conduct after a monthly use of condom, 6 hours after sexual intercourse;
- Kurzrock-Muller test (the test allows you to assess the penetrating ability of sperm in the cervical canal during the period of ovulation in a woman);
- Determination of antibodies to phospholipids, to DNA and to thyroid factors;
- Determination of genotype of spouses for HLA-antigens of Class II;
- Isozhim's test (the degree of immobility of spermatozoa is revealed);
- Shuwarsky's trial;
- Test by Bouvo-Palmer.
Treatment of immunological infertility
Various types of corticosteroids, immunomodulators and antihistamines are used to treat women. The whole process is aimed at suppressing antisperm antibodies. In the case of low treatment effectiveness, there is an alternative in the form of assisted reproductive technologies: intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilization. With men, everything is much more complicated, because at the moment there is still no effective way to get rid of spermatozoa from ACAT. The only thing that remains to do is to use methods of artificial insemination, the most effective of which is ICSI - an intracytoplasmic injection of a sperm into an egg.
Traditional medicine in the fight against immunological infertility
There are also folk methods of treating immunological infertility. We bring to your attention some useful recipes.
- Infusion of red geranium. A pinch of geranium is filled with boiling water and we insist for 10 minutes. You can drink on a tablespoon in half an hour after eating to both partners.
- Fill with 2 cups of boiling water lawn grass goose 2 tbsp. l. We insist 1 hour. Take on an empty stomach.
- Bath from the root of valerian. 30 grams of chopped herbs pour 1 liter of cool water and insist for an hour. Infusion boil for 20 minutes and leave "rest" under the lid for 5 minutes. Then filter through gauze and add to the bath. We take a bath before going to bed, the water should not be above the body temperature. The course of treatment is 12-14 baths.
- Syringes from chamomile and calendula. 1 tbsp. l. chamomile and 2 tbsp. l. Calendula is filled with boiling water and we insist 12 hours. Filter and sprinkuetsya received infusion.
- Mix 1: 1 tincture of calendula and propol alcohol extract 1% or tincture 20%. 1 tbsp. l. The resulting mixture is bred in boiled warm water and sprinkled for 10 days.