What is placenta previa?
Women with a diagnosis of "placenta previa" need to know what this means and what threatens. The placenta is an organ, developing in the body of a future mother during pregnancy. This body is a bridge between her and the future baby. Complete formation of such a bridge occurs by 16 weeks of pregnancy. The placenta provides the baby with food, vitamins, oxygen and removes metabolic products. It is the placenta responsible for the development of pregnancy.
If the pregnancy develops normally, the placenta is located on the bottom of the uterus, that is, on the back wall, where the best blood supply occurs.
The presentation of the placenta is called its attachment to the lower segment of the uterus. It is not very common and is a complication of pregnancy. Although according to statistics, this pathology is starting to slowly progress today, and this is due to the increase in the number of abortions.
Placenta presentation may be complete (central presentation) and incomplete (partial presentation). Incomplete in turn is divided into lateral and marginal.
The diagnosis of "incomplete presentation of the placenta" doctors put when the inner throat is blocked by the placenta only partially. The marginal presentation is the placement of the placenta at the level of the edge of the internal pharynx, the lateral presentation is the overlapping of the internal pharynx partially.
Causes of placenta previa
Gynecologists for today have not fully determined the causes that cause an abnormal development of the placenta. These causes are divided into two groups: dependent on the body of the pregnant woman and dependent on the fetal egg.
The first group of causes is found in women who have changes in the mucous membrane of the uterus. Such changes are a consequence of abortions, operations on the uterus (and caesarean section including). Myomas, congenital abnormalities of the uterus, multiple births may be the cause of placenta previa. According to statistics, in primiparous women, the placenta previa is much less common than in the miscreant.
The second group of causes depends on the fetal egg. Most often this is a delay in its development. When the egg is formed with a lag, it is attached to the area of ??the throat where the placenta develops.
Why does bleeding occur with placenta previa?
Often, with placenta previa, bleeding occurs, which is repeated intermittently. They, as a rule, happen at later terms of pregnancy. But it happens that in the first months. In the second half of the term, the lower segment of the uterus is formed, and in the last weeks of pregnancy, the uterus is intensively contracted, and therefore bleeding may become worse. The cause of increased bleeding happens and detachment of the placenta. Blood flows from the vessels of the uterus, but the fetus does not lose blood. This bleeding threatens him with a deficit of oxygen, that is, oxygen starvation.
Physical activity, active sex life, bathing, sauna, and even vaginal examinations by a gynecologist can also provoke bleeding.
With incomplete presentation of bleeding, there are also at the beginning of the birth process.
Diagnosis of placenta praevia
How is placenta previa diagnosed? The diagnosis is usually made in the second half of pregnancy, when a woman complains of periodic bleeding from the vagina. The doctor examines it and identifies the symptoms that are characteristic of the anomaly. In our time, most often anomalies in the development of the placenta are detected on ultrasound.
Modern diagnostic methods can accurately determine the location of the placenta. That's why you do not have to miss planned ultrasound, particularly in the second and third trimesters. They allow to minimize the risks of complications. Ultrasound can monitor the development of the placenta during the entire period of gestation.
You need to know that the causes of bleeding are sometimes pathological processes in the vagina and cervix.
Complications with partial presentation of the placenta ??h2>
So, the main complication is bleeding. In addition, there is often a threat of termination of pregnancy, which provokes an increased tone of the uterus. Symptom of the threat are pain in the lower abdomen and in the lower back. Many pregnant women with this pathology suffer from hypotension - a consistently low pressure. This, in turn, reduces efficiency, the woman becomes sluggish, drowsy, broken. She often hurts and dizzy. Even fainting is possible.
If partial bleeding occurs in women with partial presentation, this can be threatening with anemia. Reduction of hemoglobin is fraught with increased hypotension. Pressure can simply drop to a critical point. Because of maternal anemia, the fetus suffers from hypoxia, which adversely affects its development. There may be a backlog in its growth.
The pathology of the placenta contributes to the fact that the fetus often takes the wrong location in the uterus. This complicates the natural delivery.
Treatment of incomplete presentation of the placenta ??h2>
Treatment of pregnant women with this pathology should be done in a stationary setting. It is appointed after examination and determination of the type of presentation of the placenta, accounting for the intensity of bleeding and the general condition of the pregnant woman.
These women are assigned bed rest. It is possible to conduct blood transfusions with significant blood loss. Showing to future mothers with a presentation of the placenta antispasmodic drugs and hormonal drugs that help normalize uteroplacental blood circulation. They are prescribed sedatives in the form of motherwort and valerian.
Women with partial presentation of the placenta should always limit physical activity. Contraindicated them and emotional overload, stress and sexual life as a factor in provoking bleeding. Such future mothers should spend more time outdoors. Sleep should last at least 8 hours. It is advisable to relax at lunchtime.
Diet with incomplete presentation is an important factor in preventing complications. You need to eat foods rich in iron. These include buckwheat and apples, pomegranate juice and turkey, beef and beet juice. And that iron is well assimilated, it is necessary to eat protein food. It is necessary to ensure that the pregnant woman does not have constipation, because they provoke spotting. Pregnant with partial presentation is recommended to use multivitamins.
Births with incomplete placenta previa
With partial presentation, natural births are possible, if the pregnancy is complete and there is no bleeding. When the uterus is opened 5-6 cm, the gynecologist accurately diagnoses the location of the placenta and decides on what kind of delivery will be. If the course of the birth process is suddenly complicated by bleeding, then there is no way to do without surgical intervention.
However, you should be prepared and to the fact that the development of bleeding is possible even after childbirth. Therefore, a woman should be under the supervision of doctors. In exceptional cases, when it is impossible to stop bleeding, a woman is removed to maintain her life. With the successful completion of labor and the observance of all medical recommendations, the majority of women retain the reproductive system. The woman giving birth quickly returns to normal life.
Preventing placenta previa is a taboo on abortion, or, at least, reducing their number to the very minimum. In order to avoid this pathology, inflammatory processes of the uterine cavity and hormonal disorders should be treated in time.
It is necessary to avoid physical exertion and stress, to comply with diet and diet. If bleeding occurs, you should immediately contact your doctor. Also pregnant with a partial presentation of the placenta need to take care in advance to ensure donor blood, if necessary.
It is quite possible to bear a healthy child and give birth to a woman with partial presentation of the placenta, provided that all the recommendations of the treating doctor are strictly observed. After childbirth, such a woman should rest more, do not overwork, eat right and walk in the fresh air. Do not forget about the planned visit to your doctor. This will reduce the risk of bleeding and contribute to an early recovery.