For this type of in vitro fertilization, the couple is sent only if the fact of infertility of the spouse is established. It should be noted that such a procedure is performed less often than IVF with donor eggs. Psychologists explain this by the emotional characteristics of men. It is difficult for them to decide that their beloved woman should have a child whose father will be an unknown man. Legislation of the Russian Federation in such cases provides for the possibility to use the genetic material of domestic sperm banks or to order sex cells abroad. If the couple decided on the second option, the use of the material of the European cryobank is necessarily stipulated when drawing up a contract for treatment.
IVF with donor sperm is shown to a couple not only then, when the fact of complete male infertility is definitely established. This variant of the procedure is carried out when the future father has genetic diseases or the woman does not have a husband at all, but wants to have a child. Another option for in vitro fertilization of a woman with donor sperm is a series of unsuccessful attempts with the husband's (partner's) sperm.
How are donors selected for obtaining genetic material in a sperm bank? The procedure is regulated by the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of reproductive technologies. The document deals with the fact that such donors can be men who meet the following requirements:
- Age from 18 to 35 years.
- Absolutely healthy physically and mentally.
- Those who have successfully passed a survey from a geneticist.
- The indicators of sperm of which (qualitative and quantitative) correspond to the standards.
Unlike female donor oocytes (oocytes), male sperm is not used in its natural form. Spermatozoa are always frozen for a period of 6 months. This is the so-called quarantine, after which they are checked again for those diseases that are transmitted sexually.
And only after receiving a negative result (that is, the absence of such diseases) genetic material is used in IVF.
In addition to this check, one more is used - for cryostability of spermatozoa (ability to freeze and then defrost without loss of quality). If cryopreservation of sperm is transferred, then such a donor is refused.
It is worth noting, that the order of donor sperm from European cryobanks minimizes the chances of accidental marriages from descendants who may be close relatives.
In Russia, each person-donor is given a private matter. It necessarily contains information about its physical parameters: height, weight, type of appearance, blood group and Rh factor. Also in the personal file there is a record of nationality, color of hair and eyes, education. In some clinics, a detailed description of the exterior is provided, indicating the height of the forehead, for example, the shape of the ears and nose. Children's photos of a male donor can also be attached. But in the European cryobank such personal matters of donors suggest even a voice record and an IQ level. It is on these data that the couple is oriented, when together with the reproductive expert selects a donor for the procedure. Practice shows, that a man and a woman are always looking for someone who looks like a husband.
When the couple made the choice of the donor, the woman is healthy, then the conception is made by intrauterine insemination with donor sperm. This procedure is simple. A portion of sperm is injected into the womb of a woman during ovulation. If a woman has tubal, ovarian infertility, then immediately do IVF with donor sperm. As for the risks, they are the same as in the standard program with their own spermatozoa.
When the couple was treated for a long time, took all possible attempts to have a baby, and even traditional IVF did not work, then the last hope is a procedure with donor sperm.