Karyotyping: to whom and why?
In the diagnosis of infertility, the procedure for checking the compatibility of the husband and wife genes, karyotyping, is of great importance. In other words, the so-called study of the genetic material of both spouses. This manipulation consists in analyzing the quantity and quality of 23 pairs of chromosomes of a man and a woman. The results of karyotyping enable the geneticist to draw conclusions about the compatibility of the pair and the dangers that threaten their future baby.
Karyotype is a human chromosome set. Each of us is stable: it does not change from birth to death. The level of genetics in our time makes it possible to analyze genotypes of husband and wife at any age. Such an analysis establishes the chromosomal imbalance of the spouses, that is, the cause of infertility or the conception of a child with genetic abnormalities. This is the purpose of karyotyping.
Ideally, the procedure for karyotyping should be performed during pregnancy planning. This is evidence of the responsible approach of the spouses to their future. But karyotyping can be performed in a couple, when the spouse's pregnancy has come.
In what cases is karyotyping
Usually, a reproductive expert, geneticist or andrologist sends a couple to karyotyping.
The following factors serve as indications for this procedure:
- Age. A husband or wife (maybe both) is over 35 years old.
- Hereditary factors. If in the family of one of the spouses there were dangerous diseases, for example, hemophilia, then it is recommended to carry out karyotyping during the period of pregnancy planning, to avoid the birth of a child with this disease.
- Hormonal disorders in a future mother.
- Violation of the development of male sex cells (spermatogenesis) without established causes.
- Spouses living in a dangerous ecological zone, contacts with mutagens.
- The use (perhaps in the recent past) of drugs, some medicines.
- Reusable ineffective attempts IVF.
- Miscarriages in the past.
- Birth in a couple of the previous child with malformations, chromosomal pathologies.
- Close relationship of spouses.
If the couple has a reason for this examination, or the fetus is diagnosed with an abnormality after ultrasound, then karyotyping is assigned to both spouses and the child in utero.
To exclude incompatibility of spouses, it is recommended to do the karyotyping procedure before planning the children, because they can inherit the diseases of great-grandmothers, which the couple may not even know about.
Inheritance of negative traits in the offspring occurs not linearly, but according to certain parameters. This means that the first child of a couple can inherit pathological genes, and the second can be born healthy. If it is a question of hemophilia, then the girl can be the bearer of this gene and she will be healthy, and will transfer it to her son. Although in this case the boy can be born healthy.
Nowadays, the number of chromosomal pathologies is increasing. That is why the role of karyotyping in the process of pregnancy planning grows.
Today, karyotyping is affordable for most spouses who plan to conceive. But the cost of the procedure itself may not include a geneticist consultation, which is used to decipher the results.
Genetics predict that in the future karyotyping will be performed by all married couples.
So, for the birth of a healthy offspring, future parents should be responsible for planning pregnancy. This responsibility lies in the passage of karyotyping and the possibility of knowing in advance about the possible risks and pathologies of the inheritance.