The norm is the level of hemoglobin 110 g / l and above. In other cases it is anemia or, as it is also called in the people - anemia. There are three degrees of severity of anemia:
- mild degree: hemoglobin 110-90 g / l
- medium: hemoglobin 90-70 g / l
- severe: hemoglobin less than 70 g / l
About 40% of pregnant women are susceptible to malocclusion. Fortunately, frequent mandatory delivery of laboratory tests makes it possible to identify complications in time. However, there are a number of symptoms, according to which the expectant mother herself can presumably diagnose anemia in herself. And the sooner you start taking the necessary measures to normalize hemoglobin, the lesser risks you expect.
Symptoms of anemia in pregnancy:
- pallor of the skin and mucous membranes
- dizziness, flies before the eyes
- weakness , fast fatigue
- fainting condition
- heart palpitations
- dyspnoea with physical activity
- headache pain
- pallor of the skin
- brittle hair and nails
- dry skin
- cyanosis of the lips
- perverted taste preferences
Causes of anemia during pregnancy
in it hemoglobin naturally decreases. A lot of iron pulls on the growing fetus, especially the probability of anemia in a multiple pregnancy. Deficiency of copper, zinc, folic acid, vitamin B12 can also be the cause of anemia, as iron digestibility in this case worsens. Therefore, a balanced, nutritious diet of the mother plays a crucial role in the prevention of anemia.
Causes of low hemoglobin during pregnancy can be very different:
- diseases of internal organs (hepatitis, heart defects, pyelonephritis);
- toxemia in early pregnancy;
- A small gap between pregnancies (the iron reserve in the woman's body is restored about 3 years after the birth);
- hormonal changes;
- taking medications (cytostatics, levomycetin, and aminazine);
- Nervous stress.
Usually, iron deficiency occurs in the second half of pregnancy. Since the 20th week, blood volumes and fetal need in the gland have increased substantially. The maximum hemoglobin falls to 32-34 weeks of pregnancy. The fall of hemoglobin by the end of the term is considered quite normal and does not require special treatment. After all, the blood volume of the mother is significantly increased, while retaining the previous viscosity, its circulation would be difficult. In such a diluted state, the concentration of erythrocytes naturally decreases, and hemoglobin falls. But immediately before birth, the hemoglobin level increases independently.
However, it is necessary to distinguish the natural drop in hemoglobin (physiological) from anemia, which requires an enterprise of measures. Because of low hemoglobin, the fetus experiences a deficiency of nutrients, in particular oxygen, as a result of which hypoxia develops. Anemia is a threat to the bearing of a child, can cause late toxicosis and untimely discharge of amniotic fluid. There are also complications during childbirth: mild labor, premature birth, heavy bleeding and even death of the child during the first day of life. Often, these babies are born immature, with low weight and subsequently become more susceptible to infections. They may have impaired hematopoietic function of the body, there is a depression of the growth of blood cells.
That's why doctors emphatically declare that anemia needs to be treated. And it is important to know the level of hemoglobin of a woman before pregnancy, in order to calculate the rate of its fall.
Preventive maintenance and treatment of iron deficiency of pregnant women
The most reasonable and ideal option would be to prevent the development of anemia. For this, all pregnant women are recommended to take vitamin complexes from the first weeks. In addition, the mother's daily diet should contain a sufficient amount of protein and foods rich in iron. Among these are buckwheat, meat, liver, fish, eggs, stale bread, rye, oatmeal, beet, cocoa, peaches, apricots, dried apricots, nuts, green apples, spinach, pomegranates and pomegranate juice, persimmons, carrots, parsley, dried mushrooms, legumes. Take into account that iron is best absorbed from animal food: 6% of iron is absorbed from meat, only 0, 2% from plant foods. This is also promoted by walking outdoors, folic and ascorbic acid.
Nutrition with increased amounts of iron-containing foods can help increase hemoglobin levels with a slight drop in it. But at low rates the doctor will prescribe to you iron preparations and, probably, additional components, improving its absorption. Many people are reluctant to accept such an idea, for fear of synthetic medications. However, it is believed that iron deficiency carries a greater threat to the mother and fetus than the tablets themselves. They should be taken after meals, with plenty of liquid, since they can cause digestive disorders and nausea.
Doctors say that without iron preparations, anemia can not be treated in principle, because only a small percentage of iron is digested with food. Treatment lasts for several months, and the first tangible results come only after 3 weeks of drug use. And in case of severe anemia or intolerance to tablets, injections should be done. But do not worry: the doctor will choose the most suitable treatment for you.