And, of course, this condition affects the clinical analysis of blood, which will necessarily show a change in the level of lymphocytes.
What is lymphocytes, and what is their norm?
The blood cells produced by the bone marrow, and the child under the heart of the mother - in undifferentiated liver cells, are called lymphocytes. These blood elements are responsible for the immune response and immunological memory.
B-lymphocytes are responsible for the recognition of foreign cells and microorganisms, as well as for the production of antibodies.
T-cells - regulate the response of the body's immune system. T-lymphocytes are divided into:
- T-helplers: strengthen the body's response to the introduction of foreign macromolecules;
- T-suppressors: reduce the increased response of B-lymphocytes;
- T-killers: responsible for the destruction of foreign antigens.
In the absence of any violation, the norm is 20-35%. In pregnancy, the normal level of lymphocytes is 18-44%.
Any deviation from the norm can signal any violations. Often, activation of leukocytes can lead to miscarriage or premature birth activity.
Particularly important is the control of blood counts infirst and second trimester of pregnancy. It is during this period that the placenta activates all the forces to protect the fetus from getting white blood cells, so a reduced level of lymphocytes is a natural phenomenon.
Lymphocytes in pregnancy are low: what is the reason?
The fact is that the female body perceives the embryo as an alien body. This is due to the fact that the fetus consists of maternal and paternal genetic material. That is why the protective functions of the pregnant woman are activated in order to eliminate the "enemy", and the lymphocytes take a direct part in the destruction process. The greatest danger for the child comes from their side. Cells begin to destroy paternal proteins, which can lead to a disruption of the normal development of the child in the womb.
But nature has taken care of protecting the baby. In the woman's body, special mechanisms have been created to prevent rejection of the embryo. Low level of elements of the immune system and indicates a protective reaction. From the first days of pregnancy, the female body directs all forces to suppress their activity.
But even in this condition, the immune system of the pregnant woman is protected. The suppression of lymphocytes is compensated by the activation of neutrophils, which increase phagocytic activity. In the female body, cells (T-killers, B-cells) are depressed, responsible for the production of antibodies. In turn, T-suppressors begin active operations to reduce the attack of dangerous lymphocytes. Thus, in the female body, while the baby is pregnant, the immune system is in a balanced state. If the pregnancy is normal, then the amount of T-suppressors will be increased when the blood is examined.
A clinical blood test shows only the total number of lymphocytes. For a more detailed blood test for all types of lymphocytes, an immunogram is needed. Complex analysis is carried out according to certain indications, which include:
- Inflammatory processes that are chronic (candidiasis, inflammation of the bladder, gastritis, etc.).
- Allergic manifestations.
- HIV infection.
- Tissue incompatibility of mother and child.
What consequences can occur with a decreased level of lymphocytes during pregnancy? How can they be prevented?
Although Mother Nature has taken care of the protection of mother and child, however, not everything is so perfect in this protective system. Even with normal blood test results, the female body weakens as a result of lowering the level of lymphocytes. Accordingly, in the pregnant woman the protective functions of the body decrease, so future mothers are vulnerable to infection with pathogenic microorganisms and external factors. To prevent such a phenomenon, you need to prepare the body for future changes.
Doctors recommend planning the replenishment of the family in the fall period, in which case the last months will pass in the summer when the immune system is functioning at full strength.
In addition, before pregnancy is important to complete a complete examination of both partners and, if necessary, treat all infectious diseases. If this is not done, then the organism during pregnancy will have to fight also with concomitant diseases, and this will negatively affect the state of the mother and child.
During pregnancy, the child needs useful substances that he derives from the mother's body, so doctors recommend vitamin supplementation before the planned pregnancy.
Also, a woman needs to understand that the waiting period for the baby requires a responsible attitude. Therefore, do not expose your body to excess risks. Pregnant women need to be as much as possible in the fresh air, and during the period of cold epidemics avoid public places.
It is also very important to visit a doctor regularly and undergo all necessary examinations, including a blood test.
How to maintain immunity during pregnancy?
Vitamins are an excellent way to strengthen the immune system. To date, pharmaceutical companies offer a wide selection of drugs for women in the situation. However, it is forbidden to take vitamin complexes alone. All appointments should be performed by a doctor taking into account the course of pregnancy and the individual characteristics of the patient.
The most recommended drugs are:
- "Elevit Prenatal";
- "Complicant Mama";
In addition to pharmaceuticals, women in pregnancy need a balanced diet. In the daily diet must necessarily be present vegetables and fruits, cereals (especially buckwheat), liver, meat, fish products. Also, do not forget about fruit and vegetable fresh (beet, carrot, apple, pomegranate).