The statistics states that to date, somewhere around 1, 5% of newborns are twins. And the number of them has been steadily increasing in recent years. On the whole planet there are about 100 million of them. The most "prolific" nation is Africa. But the least fortunate with the twins Mongoloid race.
Causes of multiple pregnancy
Multiple pregnancy is the simultaneous development of two or more fetuses. Why does one woman become the future mother of only one baby, and the other - just four sons and daughters daughter?
The doctors have not yet given an unambiguous answer. In their opinion, this can be influenced immediately by many factors. Of course, with a higher probability of twins appear in those women who have already had such cases in the family. Accordingly, one of the reasons is heredity. And, equally - as the future of a large father, so the future mother.
Another factor is age. According to statistics, in older women, multiple pregnancies develop significantly more often than in young women. Simply the first greatly increases the level of gonadotropin - a hormone, which stimulates the development of the egg and its release from the ovary.
Another factor, according to doctors, is the intake of hormonal drugs, both for the treatment of infertility, and as a method of preventing unwanted pregnancies. And, of course, twins and twins are much more likely to appear with artificial fertilization of the egg: first, the woman takes special drugs against infertility, and secondly, she is injected with several fertilized eggs.
Features of multiple pregnancies
In natural multiple fertilization, immediately after the fusion of the female and male sex cells, one egg is divided, or two (or even more) oocytes are simultaneously fertilized at once. In the first case, there are monozygotic - that is, odnoyaytsovye - twins, in the second - dizigotnye, or raznoyaytsevye.
Odnoyaytsovye - babies, which are born with a single fertilized egg. In this case, twins are always of the same gender and one blood group. They have the same set of genes. Unicellular refers to Siamese twins - their ovule at an inopportune moment is divided into two.
Twins are children who were born when they fertilized two ovules. They can be of the same sex, and boys and girls can be born simultaneously. The same applies to blood groups - one can take my mother, the other - Dad, or all children will have the same group. They have from 40 to 60% of common genes.
Women with multiple pregnancies fall into a risk group, because nature is designed so that the body must nurture and feed only one child. In the womb, the kids do not have enough oxygen, space, nutrients, and therefore are not excluded in case of multiple pregnancy and various complications, such as miscarriage, developmental and fetal deaths, toxicoses of pregnant women, retardation of pre-natal development, premature birth, low birth weight.
The main problem of multiple mothers - very large tummies. In addition, after the 20th week of pregnancy, they are advised to stop practicing active sports, to give up work, from sexual activity. Mom, in whose pussy are growing several babies at once, you need to comply with strict bed rest - for example, she should rest no less than 8 hours a day. It is also good to be under the control of the attending physician.
Special attention should be given to this mother and her diet, because if a single pregnancy woman should recover by 12-13 kg, then for a multiple this increase should be not less than 18-20 kg.
Early signs of multiple pregnancy
Multiple pregnancy can be determined by ultrasound. However, in the early period, it is not always "discovered", since the probability of error is high. More precisely, a woman is diagnosed already near the end of pregnancy. The conclusion is based on the multiple pregnancy also on the large circumference of the abdomen and enlarged for this period the size of the uterus, palpation of the three largest parts of the fruit, listening to several heart rhythms, and in different places. All these signs the doctor-gynecologist determines during the internal examination of her patient from the second trimester of pregnancy.
But can a woman herself, even if she does not know, even if she does not know early, even suspect that she has more than one life inside herself?
Obstetricians claim that there are no special symptoms that would indicate the development of multiple pregnancy. As always, a woman can feel any sign that indicates a conception: nausea, vomiting, fatigue, impotence, an increase in the size and sensitivity of the mammary glands, a slight increase in body temperature and / or an increase in basal temperature, etc., etc.
However, certain features of the course of pregnancy can still be a hint of multiple pregnancy. Among them, in particular, we can distinguish the following:
- The pregnancy test reacts with the second strip before the delay, which is due to the increased (in comparison with usual pregnancy) levels of the hormone hCG in the woman's body, which is produced immediately two (or more) embryos.
- Nauseous and vomits stronger and more often, that is, with a greater probability of developing a pronounced early toxicosis in severe form.
- A woman feels very tired and almost always wants to sleep, because the body has to work several times more intensively.
- The tummy looks larger than the actual period, as the uterus grows faster in size than in single-pregnancy.
- The weight gain exceeds the allowable limits, and this is not related to nutrition or other apparent causes.
Once again, we draw your attention to the fact that these signs can only indicate the likelihood of multiple pregnancy, but in no case are its confirmation.
Childbirth at multiple pregnancy
As a rule, in women with multiple pregnancies, births are premature: babies usually come into the world with a small percentage of prematurity. What kind of delivery will depend on, first of all, on the presentation of babies. If both have a head previa, natural births are entirely permissible. In other cases, the doctor who watches the woman decides everything.
Such a mummy usually shows poor labor activity or it is very weakened, and therefore it is often necessary to stimulate birth. The amniotic fluid retreats ahead of time, and the placenta of the second fetus is peeled in advance. Often the fetus has abnormal presentation and hypotonic bleeding. Here a great responsibility is placed on obstetricians and gynecologists.
It is recommended, as a rule, expectant management of labor: after the first baby came out and processed his umbilical cord, the second one is opened - but not later than 10 minutes later.
However, you should not be afraid and worried if you are carrying several babies at once: more than 90% of multiple pregnancies occur virtually without any complications and are resolved safely and happily. Complications and difficulties can be, and not necessarily will, and this is not insured by any pregnant woman, no matter how many babies she hatch.