Why does it occur
The causes of the pathology are divided into endogenous (acting from within the body) and exogenous (acting outside). The latter are gas contamination of the air, radioactive irradiation, stress, inadequate nutrition, occupational hazards, the use of aggressive household chemicals. Excessive physical exertion of the future mother can also negatively influence the placenta condition. Exogenous factors of placental insufficiency include bad habits, first of all, smoking of the future mother, drinking alcohol, passion for strong coffee.
As for exogenous factors, those include the age of future parturient women older than 35 and under the age of 18; multiple births and abortions; ovarian tumors; birth in an anamnesis of hypotrophic children; habitual miscarriage; inflammatory processes of the reproductive organs.
Practice shows that very often the cause of placental insufficiency is the mother's physical illnesses. We are talking about diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, blood and kidney diseases. In the risk group, there are women with congenital pathologies of the reproductive organs, for example, a double-sided or saddle-shaped uterus.
Treatment of placental insufficiency
The main goal of therapy is to maintain pregnancy and timely delivery.
Women are hospitalized with a severe form of placental insufficiency, delayed fetal development by ultrasound and dopplerography. They need to fully rest, eat well, spend a lot of time in the fresh air.
To normalize the blood flow to these patients prescribe drugs, which improve tissue metabolism. This Actovegin, Troxevasin, ascorbic acid, tocopherol. Women with this diagnosis are prescribed reocorrectors: Infukol, Reopoliglyukin, Reosorbilakt. The introduction of sulphate magnesia, Euphyllin, glucose-novocaine mixture intravenously.
Trental and Curantil, Clexane, Fraksiparin are used to improve blood properties. These drugs dilute the blood, prevent the occurrence of pathological formations in the placenta.
Future mums with impaired functions of the placenta are prescribed drugs that improve blood circulation in the brain, for example, Pyracetam, Nootropil. Restore gas exchange in the placenta with oxygen therapy with moistened oxygen and antihypoxants. This is Mildronate, Cytochrome C, Cavinton. Reception of sedatives is indicated to relieve the excitability of the brain.
As a rule, in stationary conditions, placental insufficiency therapy lasts at least four weeks. Then, with an improvement in the placenta, therapy is continued on an outpatient basis. The general course of treatment takes 6-8 weeks. Its effectiveness is assessed using ultrasound, CTG, Doppler.
The delivery of such patients naturally is performed with the mature cervix of the uterus and compensated placental insufficiency. It is recommended to give birth with epidural anesthesia. If there is a weakening of labor, then the stimulation is carried out by prostaglandins.
Early delivery to women with placental insufficiency is indicated in the absence of positive dynamics of treatment and diagnosed fetal hypotrophy.
Consequences of pathology
If pregnancy occurs against the background of placental insufficiency, then placental abruption and perenashivanie can often develop. There is a risk of intrauterine fetal death.
For a child, such a diagnosis threatens intranatal hypoxia with impaired cerebral circulation, neurological disorders, a tendency to catarrhal diseases, malformations.