After pre-eclampsia follows the most severe form of late toxicosis (gestosis) - eclampsia. Eclampsia is accompanied by cramps and loss of consciousness. Cramps start suddenly and cover the entire body. The danger is that eclampsia can cause coma and even death of both the mother and her unborn child. At what to develop eclampsia can and before, and during, and after sorts or labors.
Causes of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women
Despite the fact that eclampsia was described in ancient medical treatises, it is not known what causes it. Similarly, it is difficult to say exactly what led to the development of the pre-eclampsia preceding it, since the exact cause of this condition is also not fully established. Some experts among the causes of pre-eclampsia, called insufficient and unsatisfactory nutrition, a high level of fat in the female body or insufficient blood flow in the uterus.
Among the signs of pre-eclampsia are:
- the main: swelling, protein in the urine, hypertension;
- additional: fast weight gain, dizziness, severe headaches, severe nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, reflex changes, decreased urine volume, visual impairment, pain in the epigastric region.
But do not get scared when reading these lines, because swelling during pregnancy does not mean the presence of pre-eclampsia. For pregnancy, some swelling is characteristic. But, if the swelling remains even after a long rest and to all the same combine with the described symptoms and are accompanied by high blood pressure, it is an alarm bell.
Who can develop pre-eclampsia?
The risk group for the development of pre-eclampsia includes women:
- pregnant women for the first time;
- become pregnant at a very young age (under 16 years) or at the age of 40 years;
- with the presence of hypertension even before pregnancy;
- with a strong stage of obesity;
- with diseases: diabetes, lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis;
- with kidney disease;
- with multiple pregnancies;
- who reported cases of pre-eclampsia in previous pregnancies;
- whose mother or sister also had cases of pre-eclampsia.
Does pre-eclampsia of pregnant women create a danger to the baby in the womb?
Unfortunately, yes. With pre-eclampsia, placental blood flow is disrupted, which leads to the birth of an underdeveloped baby. Moreover, pregnancy, complicated by preeclampsia, in most cases ends with premature birth. Also, there is a high risk of having a baby with various pathologies. For example, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, impaired vision and hearing.
How to treat pre-eclampsia of pregnant women?
There is no specific treatment for pre-eclampsia. But, in connection with the threat of the transition of this state to eclampsia, a pregnant woman needs urgent hospitalization. In the hospital, women can prescribe magnesium sulfate (magnesia) preparations to prevent the appearance of seizures and lower blood pressure. It is established, that application of magnesium sulfate in half reduces the risk of eclampsia in women with symptoms of pre-eclampsia. To lower blood pressure, it is possible to use hydralazine or similar drugs. It is also possible to prescribe medications with anticonvulsant and sedative actions. Especially carefully during this period, control the intake of a pregnant woman's fluid and the amount of urine allocated to it. Also, a pregnant woman is recommended to rest as much as possible. During the rest you need to be lying or lying on your left side, or sitting straight.
Women with mild pre-eclampsia need careful care and a significant restriction of activity.
If there is a risk of premature birth, doctors will do everything possible to prolong the pregnancy and that the baby born survives. If the gestational age is already approaching the expected date of delivery, the birth is induced artificially. In the case of a very severe form of pre-eclampsia, immediate delivery is performed despite the duration of pregnancy, since the slightest delay in this case is fraught with a fatal outcome.
Fortunately, not every case of pre-eclampsia ends hard. If statistics are to be believed, today there are only two hundred cases where there is only one, which turns out to be tragic.
Preventing the onset of
There is no one hundred percent reliable way to prevent pre-eclampsia of pregnant women. However, in order to prevent its development, doctors advise in the period of bearing the baby (especially if the woman is at risk) to be as close to your body as possible: to have more rest, Do not overexert yourself, eat right and take medical exams on time. It is necessary to regularly take all the tests, even such, at first glance, simple, like blood and urine tests. Continuous monitoring of the protein level in the urine, as well as the arterial pressure, will help determine pre-eclampsia in its early stages. And this, in turn, will ensure the most favorable outcome.