Pregnancy is considered fully mature from 37 weeks. The onset of labor before this period is called premature. But there is one very important clarification: childbirth (and not miscarriage) should be called the birth of a child in the period of 22 weeks. Moreover, if the weight of the fetus reaches at least 500 g, doctors are compelled to fight desperately for his life. This is prescribed by law. But in practice, unfortunately, quite often it does not look exactly like that. Rescuing and supporting such crumbs is a very expensive, responsible and highly skilled medical personnel process. The organs and systems of such a tiny baby are not yet formed and are not properly developed, they can not breathe on their own. That is why, with the present threat of premature birth, literally every day counts, which will help the little bit, but nevertheless grow and grow stronger in the mother's tummy: this certainly increases the chances of survival in the event of delivery. Therefore, be responsible if the doctor tells you about the need for in-patient follow-up due to the high risk of preterm labor.
Causes of premature birth
Especially vigilant need to be mummies, falling into the risk group for delivery before the due date. And the reasons for the premature appearance of a baby can be a lot.
First of all, these are genital infections. The infected uterus is not able to bring the matter to an end. It stretches as long as it can, after which it simply rejects the fruit.
Before the due date, the delivery also occurs with an ischemic-cervical insufficiency (ICN), when the cervical canal can not retain the fetus in the womb because of its muscle failure. Among other obstetric-gynecological causes of premature births - abruption or placenta previa, premature rupture of the membranes, congenital malformations of the uterus, as well as too heavy for it during pregnancy: polyhydramnios, multiple pregnancy, bearing a very large fetus. In time, the not removed intrauterine spiral, malformations in the development of the fetus or its intrauterine death also result in premature birth. If you have had abortions in the past, or if a previous pregnancy has been accompanied by a threat of premature birth or cervical rupture, the risks are significantly increasing.
Doctors can decide to call premature births with severe gestosis, when a real threat looms over the life of a woman and a fetus.
In addition, there are many other factors that can provoke the onset of labor: a heavy physical labor of a pregnant woman, poor nutrition, unfavorable psychoemotional conditions in the family or at work, endured ARI, endocrinopathy, disturbance of the heart or kidneys, varicose veins. Pregnancy in very young or mature age also constitutes a certain risk.
One can not help saying that often childbirth, perceived as premature, actually happens on time, just an error was made in determining the expected date of birth. Therefore, it is important to determine the date of conception as precisely as possible and to calculate your pregnancy period.
Of great importance is how the woman reacts to the diagnosis of the threat of premature birth. Because experiences and worries only aggravate the situation. Therefore, you need to learn to relax and adjust yourself to a positive mood. But still do not lose vigilance and, if necessary, act accordingly.
Guide to action
The precursors of premature birth do not differ from the onset of labor in time with only one difference - they appear much earlier than expected. Initially, the woman feels the pulling pains in the lower abdomen, giving back, which indicates an increased activity of the uterus, that is, inappropriately shortened. The motor activity of the child will change: it either freezes or makes itself felt very much. At the next stage, the mucous plug and even amniotic fluid can go away - there is nothing to think about now, hospitalization is necessary in the shortest possible time. This indicates that the uterus begins to open, the cramping pain is more frequent and intensified.
If the cause of premature birth is the weakness of the cervix, the whole process can be virtually asymptomatic. The only thing, a woman feels a heaviness in the vagina - this lowers the fetal bladder.
In general, premature birth passes faster and easier, because the baby is still very small. Therefore, you need to act quickly.
If you were diagnosed with the threat of premature birth, but you stayed at home, you should be extremely cautious and attentive. Any physical activity should be excluded, including walking and sex. Do not lift anything heavy, do not make sharp movements, and go on a diet that excludes heavy and provoking food.
Once you have felt the first signs of childbirth, take a sedative (motherwort or valerian), 2-3 tablets No-shpy, call an ambulance and conveniently lie down, preferably on one side.
What awaits a woman in the hospital?
Further events can develop in several variations. If a woman's condition is critical, then doctors will have to take birth. Do not attempt to prolong pregnancy and in the case when amniotic fluid is discharged after 34 weeks. At the same time during the adoption of preterm labor the doctor constantly monitors the fetus with the help of a cardiac monitor. If the vital signs of the baby are unsatisfactory, they will have a cesarean section.
In all other situations (when it is too early and not advisable to give birth), doctors should make maximum efforts to save pregnancy and delay the date of premature birth. If it works out, then up to 37 weeks.
First of all, doctors will calm the uterus and normalize blood circulation in the placenta, introducing medicinal solutions by setting up a dropper, and later will switch to tablets.
At the same time, the doctor must find out the reason why the birth began before the due date, in order to eliminate it as far as possible. If a woman has run out of water, antibiotic therapy will begin, as the path of infection to the fetus is now open. It should also be done if the cause of premature birth was infection.
A woman will certainly start giving Dexamethasone, which accelerates the development of the baby's pulmonary system in case the birth does begin earlier. Without soothing drugs, as a rule, also does not do: first, it was stress that could trigger the onset of labor, and secondly, the woman's fear of losing a child involuntarily leads the uterus in tone. Homeopathic preparations are mainly prescribed.
If the cause of the threat or the onset of premature birth is the development of the NIH, then it is necessary to suture the cervix (which is done under internal anesthesia). And if the situation has arisen after the 28th week of pregnancy - a special Golgi support ring is inserted into the vagina.
After giving birth
The prematurely born child, as we have already said, requires increased attention, help and special care. His mother is likely to be detained in the hospital for longer than usual, and after discharge, it will be necessary to follow the recommendations of doctors to care for the baby. The very same mother will have to undergo a series of studies to prevent the development of postpartum complications. And in the future, if after this pregnancy there are others, be under close surveillance of doctors, especially during critical periods during gestation.
But it will be later. And now mother will enjoy the happiness of motherhood.