What are the sizes and shape of a normal uterus?
The uterus is the organ in which an ovum is implanted after fertilization. It is the womb that becomes a "house" in which for 9 months the baby lives, develops and grows stronger.
The uterus is the muscular organ of the woman's reproductive system, located in the small pelvis between the bladder and rectum. The length of this organ is about 7-8 cm, width - 4-6 cm. The weight of the uterus is on average 60 grams.
The uterus consists of the body (the upper pear-like part) and the cervix (the junction of the "pear" with the vagina). On the side of the uterus are the fallopian tubes, which connect it with the ovaries. The uterus can move backward if the bladder is full, or forward, in the case of filling the rectum. During pregnancy, when the uterus grows, it exits the pelvic floor and rises.
The uterus is formed in the fetus of the female already at 10-14 weeks of intrauterine development. During this period, the future girl "merge" Mullerian ducts (two identical halves). After the fusion, there are two utero-vaginal cavities, which are separated by a septum. Later in the normal this septum disappears, and the uterus takes its usual form, that is, it becomes one-leafed.
What is the saddle-uterus?
The saddle uterus is a variety of the two-horned uterus (at the base of their formation there are similar reasons), and more precisely, this is an intermediate stage between the normal and the two-horned uterus.
Saddle-shaped uterus is a congenital pathology, in which a depression similar to the saddle is formed in the region of the uterine fundus. Hence the name. In general, this uterus has the shape of a heart. The transverse size of the saddle uterus, in comparison with the normal uterus, is more extended. The degree of change in form with this developmental malformation of the female's sexual system is different.
A lot of women, whose uterus has a saddle shape, do not even suspect that they have such a defect. The diagnosis of "saddle uterus" is based on the results of hysteroscopy, hysterosalpingography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging. It happens, that the presence of this defect in a woman doctors know after the birth in the process of scraping her cavity. And sometimes - at the next pregnancy, which does not flow as smoothly as the first.
Why do some women have a saddle uterus?
The reasons for the formation of the saddle uterus are:
- teratogenic factors on the fetus (intoxication drugs, alcohol, nicotine, drugs, chemicals);
- mental trauma, suffered by a woman during pregnancy;
- thyrotoxicosis, diabetes mellitus;
- vitamin deficiency;
- heart defects in a pregnant woman;
- infectious diseases (measles, rubella, toxoplasmosis, influenza, syphilis).
Often, the saddle uterus is combined with the defects of the urinary system, the narrow pelvis, the intrauterine partition.
Is pregnancy possible with the saddle uterus?
This question worries more than one woman. If the changes in the shape of the uterus are minor, this does not affect either conception, or the course of pregnancy, or in most cases the process of delivery. If the saddle shape is strongly pronounced, the processes of conception and gestation are complicated, and in some cases even become impossible. The most frequent complications of pregnancy in the saddle uterus are abnormal placenta previa, the threat of miscarriage, and the violation of labor.
Problems with pregnancy can be with a pronounced saddle, because in that case the wrong shape of the uterus interferes with the implantation (attachment) of the fetal egg. In some cases, a septum is located inside the saddle. This can lead to infertility or miscarriage in the early stages.
There may also be a problem with the attachment of the placenta, because there is not enough space in the uterine cavity. As a result, the placenta can attach too low or very sideways. All this becomes a provoking factor for miscarriage or a constant threat of miscarriage. When the baby is already quite large - the risk of premature birth increases. It happens that the attachment of the embryo does not occur on the muscular body of the uterus, but on the septum, if such exists. The septum can not fully function as a uterus and as a result the embryo does not develop.
Another difficulty that can arise in a pregnant woman with a saddle-shaped uterus is a partial or complete placental abruption and, consequently, bleeding.
Because the shape of the uterus with a pronounced saddle shape is not the same as that required by nature, it can cause a certain position of the child in it. In this case, the baby may take an incorrect position (transverse or oblique).
Women who managed to get pregnant with the diagnosis of "saddle-shaped uterus", already from the earliest time must be under the supervision of a gynecologist. In the event of any minimal changes, they should immediately inform specialists from maternity hospitals.
With full term pregnancy, such women, unfortunately, may have problems, requiring doctors to take urgent measures and change obstetric tactics. As a rule, the process of natural childbirth has to be replaced by a Caesarean section operation. By the way, the irregular shape of the uterus leads to the fact that the nerve impulses in it are not born correctly, and uterine contractions during the birth process become less powerful than required. In the postpartum period, atopic and hypotonic bleeding is possible in women with a saddle-shaped uterus, because the uterus is not sufficiently reduced after delivery.
In cases where a woman with a saddle-shaped uterus does not have a pregnancy, this problem must be solved by surgery. Plastic surgeons, in the vast majority of cases, are able to correct this defect. Such a procedure is performed during hysteroscopy, which is carried out through natural ways, and thus there is no need to produce additional incisions and to introduce a woman into a prolonged "anesthetic" sleep. Specialists say that after such an operation, the chances of successful conception and successful birth are several dozen times higher.
Does the child suffer during pregnancy in the cavity of the saddle uterus?
The shape of the saddle-shaped uterus in which the baby is located does not create inconveniences for him. But, if there are any complications, this, of course, creates certain dangers. We are talking about the above phenomena. Such as placental abruption, weakness of labor and others. On the physical and mental development of the future baby this does not affect.