With each week, pregnancy becomes noticeable to others: the figure of a woman is rounded, the breast increases. Experts advise slowly to think about the bandage, which is recommended to start wearing around the 20th week of pregnancy, avoid stretch marks and to eliminate the threat of termination of pregnancy. At the same time, slowly you can start to prepare for breastfeeding, daily masturbating the mammary glands with a towel and taking air baths.
In the second trimester of pregnancy, one of the main periods of pre-natal life falls on the baby: by the 16th week the baby's internal organs and the formation of the placenta are being completed. So, henceforth the function of supplying oxygen and nutrients, as well as the responsibility to protect the child from the influence of many harmful substances and the penetration of infections, lies on the placenta.
Nausea in the second trimester of pregnancy
As a rule, nausea in the second trimester of pregnancy a woman no longer worries - a toxicosis with all the accompanying "delights" becomes an unpleasant memory of the early pregnancy. Most pregnant women in the second trimester notice that the nausea has disappeared, and replaced by an increased appetite.
But, at the same time, do not forget that the body of each person is unique, and each woman "carries" pregnancy in different ways. Therefore, it is not surprising that some mothers, even with the onset of the second trimester of pregnancy, may complain of nausea, which usually occurs in the morning, immediately after awakening, or as a reaction to irritating unpleasant odors.
Methods of "fighting" with this unpleasant phenomenon are used the usual: with morning sickness you can cope, drinking immediately after awakening water with a lemon or tea and snacking a biscuit or cracker, without even getting out of bed. All the same it is necessary to "search" for the most optimal products, avoiding fatty foods. It is desirable to exclude all smells that provoke attacks of nausea - a sharp perfume, the aroma of chebureks or fried onions (which of the women is "weak").
In case of debilitating nausea with constant regular attacks of vomiting, it is still worthwhile to see a doctor: this situation is considered a pathology and can be a threat.
Allotments in the second trimester of pregnancy
If the vaginal discharge in the early stages neither qualitatively nor quantitatively changes dramatically, the second trimester of pregnancy usually differs in some increase in secretions. Wherein, discharge in the second trimester of pregnancy acquire a somewhat whitish color of a milky hue, and distinguishes them by an unpruried somewhat sour smell.
Increasing the intensity of secretions is a consequence of hormonal changes in the body, and one should be prepared to increase the amount of secretions as the pregnancy period increases. If the discharge is not accompanied by itching and / or burning sensation and does not change color, you should not worry. But one should be alert if:
- there are curdled or thickly white discharge in the second trimester of pregnancy, giving discomfort in the form of itching or burning. Most likely, it will be necessary to have a case with thrush, which is necessary to treat in order to avoid the transmission of infection to the baby;
- appear spotting spotting. Perhaps, they are provoked by erosion of the cervix, in addition, such secretions can signal a threat of miscarriage or premature birth (depending on the period);
- the selection changes color, acquiring a greenish, yellow tint or different "frothiness". Probably, we are talking about joining the infection;
- Allocations are distinguished by a clear and unpleasant odor. The risk of developing bacterial vaginosis is great;
- the allocation is abundant, while transparent and do not have a pronounced unpleasant odor. Perhaps this indicates irritation from any effects (for example, as a reaction to daily gaskets, and then the situation can be changed by eliminating the stimulus). Or there is a leakage of amniotic fluid (you can establish by using an indicator test, sold at a pharmacy, or during the survey).
Pain in the second trimester of pregnancy
The most common complaints of this period concerning painful sensations are pain in the lower back and pelvic region. Such pain in the second trimester of pregnancy physicians explain the gradual increase in the uterus and, accordingly, increasing in the size of the abdomen.
But there is no need for any painful sensations in the abdomen. Therefore, when there are pains in the abdomen, and also "backed up" by pains in the sacrum or thighs, and even more so, in the presence of bloody discharge, you should urgently go to the doctor - the risk of pregnancy breakdown is too high.
A very unpleasant phenomenon of the second trimester of pregnancy can be heartburn - as a result of squeezing the stomach with a growing uterus, in connection with which the normal function of digestion is disrupted.
Again, due to the increase in the uterus in size and squeezing of the abdominal cavity, constipation may develop. It is important to adhere to the correct diet and increase the amount of fiber in the diet, to cope with constipation will also help prunes, dried apricots and baked apples. Constipation should be avoided, because from permanent constipation and to hemorrhoids not far, and this is much more serious and "painful" than just the inability to go to the toilet "for the most."
Perhaps in the second trimester of pregnancy the appearance of seizures - painful involuntary muscle contractions in calves and feet. This symptom may indicate a violation of the mineral metabolism in the body and be caused by stagnant phenomena in the legs. It is important to lead an active lifestyle by performing gymnastics for the joints and visiting the pool, doing foot massage and paying attention to the quality of food. So, in the diet, calcium, magnesium and vitamin E. must be present in sufficient quantities.
Cold in the second trimester of pregnancy
In the second trimester, as well as throughout the pregnancy, the woman is still the same is vulnerable to all kinds of colds. But, fortunately, the cold in the second trimester of pregnancy no longer presents such a danger as in the early stages of bearing a baby. And, nevertheless, it is necessary to treat catarrhal diseases, moreover, necessarily with the intervention of the doctor - most of the medications are still under the ban, and the common cold, albeit not on such "scales", can still do great harm.
So, at this stage, the cold can provoke the development of fetoplacental insufficiency, and because of violations of the placenta, the risk of fetal hypoxia, delayed development of the fetus. In addition, to affect negatively the cold in the second trimester of pregnancy can affect the nervous system of the fetus, because right now it is actively developing.
If a cold caught a woman at the 14th week of pregnancy, the risk of miscarriage remains, in addition, there are possible violations of the endocrine system (now its formation is verified). At 16-17 weeks of pregnancy, a cold can affect the formation of the bone tissue of the child - active strengthening of the fetus bones lasts until the 18th week. A cold in the 19-20 weeks of pregnancy is dangerous for a girl growing up in the womb of a mother: for this period, the formation of eggs of babies is necessary, and viruses can have extremely adverse effects on their number and functioning.
In connection with all of the above, treatment of a cold in the second trimester of pregnancy should not be neglected. The treatment schedule should be discussed with the doctor, in any case, the woman is shown bed rest, plentiful drink, gargling with herbal decoctions with the addition of soda, rinsing the nose with saline.
Temperature in the second trimester of pregnancy
But not always, unfortunately, Catarrhal symptoms are expressed only by slight ailments, in many cases, they are associated with a significant increase in temperature. It is believed that a significantly higher temperature in the second trimester of pregnancy has no negative effect on the fetus - to a certain extent, the negative effects are removed by the placental barrier, and the placenta becomes an obstacle to the penetration of viruses and infections to the child. But, at the same time, it is necessary to be treated, and it is necessary - observing the regimen prescribed by the doctor.
It should be remembered that in order to reduce the temperature, do not use Aspirin, Analgin, Nurofen. Suitable as an antipyretic agent, except that drugs based on paracetamol, and then - after consulting a specialist. At the same time, if the temperature does not exceed the indicators of 37, 8-38 degrees, it is desirable to cope with the temperature syndrome with the help of folk remedies - using decoction of lime blossom, tea with honey and raspberries, making cold compresses.
If a significantly elevated temperature is recorded without concomitant cold symptoms in the form of a cough, runny nose and malaise, it may be caused by a much more serious illness. So, high fever can be accompanied by pyelonephritis, tuberculosis, herpes and some other diseases, which are dangerous for the development and normal formation of the fetus. Therefore, in the presence of heat without cold symptoms should always consult a therapist and gynecologist, as well as if necessary, to give tests.
As for "subfebrile" states within the boundaries of 37, 2-37, 5 degrees. Somewhat elevated temperature, inherent for the early period of pregnancy, can persist in the second trimester. But, at the same time, such temperature indicators in the second trimester of pregnancy can also be a sign of the extrauterine position of the fetus. And so, too, examinations and ultrasound, the analyzes needed at this time, acquire such importance.
Ultrasound in the second trimester of pregnancy
In the second trimester of a pregnant woman, a second planned ultrasound will be performed, with an optimal term for 20-24 weeks. By this time, ultrasound is no longer required to prepare and conduct it with a full bladder: enough already available amniotic fluid.
During ultrasound in the second trimester of pregnancy, a specialist evaluates the development of the fetus and the number of amniotic fluid, determines the presence or absence of malformations of the internal systems and organs of the child, clarifies the period of pregnancy. If, for some reason during the first planned ultrasound, a multiple pregnancy was not diagnosed, the doctor will inform her mother about her presence with her father now. In addition, ultrasound in the second trimester of pregnancy can show the sex of the expected baby, although often the baby turns his ass, which makes the definition impossible.
The second planned ultrasound allows, among other things, assess the placenta and umbilical cord, display data on the length of the cervix and the state of the internal pharynx.
Analyzes in the second trimester of pregnancy
In addition to ultrasound, Analyzes are needed in the second trimester of pregnancy in the form of a clinical blood test (primarily to determine the level of hemoglobin) and a general urine test (to assess kidney function). In addition, the pregnant woman will receive a gynecological smear, and if necessary, an analysis for TORCN infection.
In the second trimester of pregnancy, a so-called biochemical screening or "triple test" can be proposed and conducted. This analysis involves the study of blood on 3 major markers: chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and estriol. The triple test reveals possible malformations and chromosomal abnormalities of the fetus, impaired spinal cord formation, hydrocephalus and some other pathologies. This "combined" analysis can be shown to those of women, who already had a pregnancy stagnation, those who have relatives with congenital pathologies of development. However, it should be borne in mind that the diagnosis in any case is not based on the results of the analysis: the triple test is designed to determine whether the pregnant woman belongs to the risk group. The optimal time for biochemical screening is a period of 16-18 weeks.
Signs of a frozen pregnancy in the second trimester
One of the greatest tragedies that can happen in the second trimester of pregnancy is the fading of the fetus. In principle, the cessation of development and the subsequent death of the fetus, which, in fact, is a frozen pregnancy, can also occur at earlier times. Risk of fading persists in the second trimester, the most dangerous in this regard is the period of 16-18 weeks.
- the termination or absence of fetal movements. The first movement of the baby Mom can feel by the 18-20 week (usually before the stirring feel re-roaming women). If the baby suddenly stopped moving from time to time in the tummy, you should immediately consult a doctor - a specialist will listen to the heartbeat of the fetus with a stethoscope, and if bad indicators (deaf or not listening pulse) will appoint an additional ultrasound;
- about the possible fading pregnancy can signal changes related to the mammary glands. So, for a stagnant pregnancy, a reduction in the size of the breasts is characteristic, the mammary glands become soft, the colostrum is stopped;
- diagnose pregnancy fading specialist can during gynecological examination: on the slightly open cervix of the uterus, cessation of growth of the uterus, thick brown secretions and a specific red-pink color of the vagina.
Nutrition in the second trimester of pregnancy
Nutrition in the second trimester of pregnancy still plays one of the key roles for the normal formation of the fetus and the excellent state of health of the future mother. The main condition regarding the diet - it should be balanced, provide the body of a woman and a child in the right quantities with the necessary nutrients and nutrients.
Mandatory on the mother's table fish and low-fat meat (preferably in boiled form), which will become the main source of protein. Eggs, cottage cheese, milk and dairy products will provide the calcium required at this stage, which is necessary for the normal formation of the bone tissue of the child. Beef liver, buckwheat porridge, apples and tomato juice will put the body iron, the need for which increases day by day, and the lack of which can provoke anemia. Vegetables and fruits in sufficient quantities in the diet are mandatory - and as a source of vitamins and minerals, and as a "guard" against constipation.
Of great importance is the quality of food: for the time of pregnancy it is better to refuse smoked products, marinades, half-finished products, all kinds of purchased ketchup-mayonnaise sauces. In addition, it is necessary to limit the consumption of sweets and flour products to avoid a weight jump and not to provoke the development of diabetes of pregnant women.
Well, of course, categorically prohibited in the second trimester of pregnancy alcohol, with a high risk of having a negative impact on the development of the child. However, in some cases, experts allow red wine in small quantities, but only occasionally, necessarily natural and unspecified, diluted with half the water.
Vitamins in the second trimester of pregnancy
The need for valuable substances, including in vitamins, during pregnancy increases by approximately 1, 5 times. But this does not mean that vitamins in the second trimester of pregnancy a woman must a priori take in the form of multivitamin preparations, not at all. So, the body of each person, do not get tired of reminding physicians, is individual, and therefore the needs of each pregnant woman are individual. Especially, that according to one of the theories the organism "knows how" to independently regulate the needs and "distribute" the reserves.
If in the recent past, many doctors almost universally prescribe vitamins for pregnant women (and it is necessary to coordinate the intake of certain multivitamin preparations with a doctor), today many people refuse this practice. It is proved that the uncontrolled assignment of vitamin complexes during pregnancy very often leads to the birth of large children, who, moreover, appear in the process of cesarean section (a woman who is too large can not always give birth naturally).
Therefore, all the same, the main "emphasis" in the matter of providing the body with vitamins, doctors do on nutrition, especially if the pregnant woman carefully follows the diet, The pregnancy did not fall on the winter-spring period and proceeds safely. Principles of proper nutrition in order to obtain the maximum amount of vitamins from food: the mandatory presence in the daily menu of proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, prebiotics and probiotics.
At the same time, it should be borne in mind that some substances are prescribed for all future mothers, regardless of age, living conditions and health status. These include folic acid and vitamin E - they are necessary to reduce the risk of possible abnormalities of the child's neural development. In addition, taking folic acid reduces the likelihood of pre-eclampsia or hypertension associated with pregnancy.
During pregnancy, including the second trimester, the need also increases for B vitamins (needed for the assimilation of proteins, the development of the nervous system and the brain), vitamins A (responsible for the development of bone tissue, retina of the eyes, skin), C (reduces the risk of premature birth, is necessary for immunity) , D (participates in the formation of bone tissue and the "bookmark" of teeth baby). But the physician should determine the expediency of additional intake of these or other multivitamin preparations combining different combinations of vitamins. It is possible that the need for vitamins can be replenished by adjusting the diet.
Sex in the second trimester of pregnancy
When the main anxiety about fetal consolidation in the uterus and its normal development remain in the past, and with them all the ailments and signs of early toxicosis go into oblivion, a woman quite logically "remembers" about the pleasant moments of intimacy. So, along with a bored spouse on his spousal, wonders if it is possible and how safe sex is in the second trimester of pregnancy.
Almost all medics agree that in the absence of contraindications and the normal course of pregnancy, sex in the second trimester is not only allowed, but also necessary. So, sex life does not harm the future baby, but the mother and father give the opportunity to experience new sensations, get closer even more and fully enjoy the touch of each other.
It is interesting that many women note: the middle of pregnancy is marked by a certain "splash" of sexual energy. Doctors explain the growing need for physical love in this case by intensive blood filling of the pelvic organs. Therefore, sex in the second trimester of pregnancy, if not prohibited by a doctor, can very much be practiced.