According to some reports, slightly less than half of all couples who do not have the opportunity to conceive a child already have a baby, that is, secondary infertility - is not uncommon.
Possible causes of secondary infertility
There are many reasons for this condition. And the later the couple seeks help from a specialist, the worse, because with age, the reasons for secondary infertility are added.
- Age. Recently, the age of primiparous women has changed markedly. To give birth to the first baby at 30 is quite normal. It is clear that the second and subsequent children are not in a hurry to "start", and if they do, it does not always work out. It's all about fertility ("fertility") of a woman who is very dependent on age. It is believed that it is easiest to get pregnant at the age of 15 to 30 years, after which the chances of conceiving a child will decrease. After 35 years of diagnosis, secondary infertility doctors put a quarter of all women.
- Hormones. These "mysterious creatures" are the most unpredictable. Problems with the thyroid are very often the cause of infertility. For example, with thyroid hyperfunction (when the production of its hormones increases), the production of pituitary hormones decreases, on which the regular menstrual cycle primarily depends. It is clear that if the hormones of the pituitary gland fail, the menstrual cycle itself is lost, which entails a lot of consequences in the form of many gynecological diseases (uterine myomas, endometriosis). However, the hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland also affects the ability to become pregnant, as it leads to an increased production of pituitary hormones, which can suppress the production of ovarian hormones. This is how everything is interconnected and sometimes too confusing.
- Gynecological diseases. From the foregoing, that gynecological diseases can also cause secondary infertility. Polycystic ovaries, uterine fibroids, inflammatory diseases of the fallopian tubes, cervix, vagina and ovaries require immediate treatment, as they often cause infertility. Obstruction of the fallopian tubes can occur due to endometriosis.
- Abortions and other uterine injuries. Gynecological "cleansing" ruthlessly damages the internal cavity of the uterus - sometimes the entire layer of the endometrium is scraped. Thus, the egg safely ripens and even fertilizes, but there is nothing to attach to it - the uterus is not able to do this if its functional layer is damaged. The operations in the uterus cavity (including Caesarean section) do not finish in the best way, as they leave behind spikes, scars, polyps, which in turn also affect the processes of conception, not in favor of those wishing to have children. Fortunately, it is possible to cope with these states.
- "Biological incompatibility". This condition is a real mystery for doctors and scientists if the couple already has a child, and the second (or third and subsequent) can not conceive. The causes of secondary infertility in the case of "biological incompatibility" can neither be revealed nor explained.
- Lifestyle. Many people can immediately point out that in our time few people have a healthy healthy way of life, and this is the reason that almost every fifth woman can not become a mother. Bad habits, improper diet (even frequent ill-considered diets), promiscuous sex life - all this can result in infertility, both primary and secondary.
Do not forget that not only the woman is the culprit of infertility. Male infertility is also not uncommon and its main causes are as follows:
- Obstruction of the vas deferens;
- Hormonal failures;
- Psychosexual disorders;
- Sexually transmitted infections;
- Varicose veins of the ovary and others.
The plan of action for secondary infertility
The very first and most important thing: do not delay the visit to a specialist if you "work on the second child" for a year, but the result is not there. And do not panic! After all, secondary infertility can be cured quite possibly, the main thing is to find its causes and eliminate them. Be prepared for frequent visits to a variety of doctors and prepare to take a lot of tests.
- Visit the gynecologist. It should be prepared in advance, recording for at least 3 months the start and end date of each menstruation, measuring daily basal temperature or conducting tests for ovulation. All the information collected by you will help the doctor immediately orientate and prescribe an examination and treatment.
- Analyzes for infection. You will be tested for gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, ureaplasmosis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), because these infectious diseases lead to inflammatory processes in the body, and those in turn affect the process of conception not in the best way . To do this, you will most likely take gynecological smears on the pathogens of infection. Analyzes of blood for antibodies to infections, as a rule, give false positive results.
- Analyzes for hormones. Handing these tests, you need to adhere to some recommendations (for example, you need to give blood strictly on an empty stomach and on the 2-4 day of the menstrual cycle), which the doctor will give. This analysis will help determine whether the level of "male hormones" (DEA-S, 17-OH-progesterone, testosterone) has been increased, as the hormones of the pituitary gland responsible for the regularity of the menstrual cycle (FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing) hormone), prolactin), as well as ovarian hormones (E2 (estradiol), progesterone), adrenals (cortisol) and thyroid (T3 free, T4 free, TSH, antibodies to TPO).
- Ultrasound. Do it at least three times during the menstrual cycle, examining in each particular phase the state of the endometrium, determining the presence and development of the dominant follicle. Also, the doctor examines the condition of the uterus and ovaries.
- Hysterosalpingography (helps to determine the patency of the fallopian tubes), hysteroscopy (examination of the uterus from the inside with a special optical device), laparoscopy (this procedure not only reveals possible causes of infertility, but also eliminates them, removing, for example, a cyst or cute, cauterizing foci of endometriosis, separating spikes, etc.).
- An analysis of antisperm antibodies that can block spermatozoa, "not letting" them to the egg.
Also, a man needs to visit a urologist or andrologist, pass tests for infection, undergo ultrasound, pass sperm to a spermogram and a MAR test.
After all these "tests", the doctors will put an accurate diagnosis and prescribe a treatment. "Insemination" (when purified spermatozoons are inserted into the uterus), or IVF (in vitro fertilization), or the donation of sex cells and embryos will help "conceive a child". Modern medicine offers many ways to "fight" with secondary infertility.
But do not forget about the main thing: about prayer and faith. The birth of a baby is a true miracle. And only God in power can send us joy to experience motherhood. Be happy!