Leave for a while the topic of male reproductive health and talk about the female.
According to medical statistics, in recent years there has been an increase in infertility cases among girls who have reached reproductive age. Probably, for each girl to learn about his inability to conceive and give birth to a child - the worst thing that can happen in life. The diagnosis of "infertility" does not allow you to experience the joy of motherhood. And for many women, the absence of a child is an incomplete family.
In this regard, it is very important to know the signs of possible infertility in a girl. This will make it possible to conduct a comprehensive survey in a timely manner, appoint and conduct the necessary treatment and medical procedures to reactivate the reproductive capacity of the female body.
What can cause infertility? h>>
There are a number of reasons that can interfere with the onset of pregnancy, the bearing and the birth of a child:
- Hormonal dysfunctions, manifested by impaired functioning of the ovaries and other organs responsible for the production of hormones - the pituitary gland , the hypothalamus, the adrenal glands and the thyroid gland. Infertility in this case is inevitable.
- Endometriosis of the uterus. This disease is fraught with scar formation. If the signs of this disease are seen in the internal organs of the reproductive system of the patient, then infertility should be feared.
- Symptoms of infertility can also serve as pathological changes in the uterus - such as polyposis, fibroids, uterine dysplasia or the presence of an intrauterine septum. All these pathologies can be congenital, but can also arise in the process of life.
- Clogging of the fallopian tubes - tubal infertility. It arises because of the formation of adhesions in the fallopian tubes.
- Presence of adhesions in the pelvic area. Such adhesions can result from any inflammation or surgical intervention. Similar spikes can occur between the fallopian tube and the ovary, which makes it impossible for the egg to enter the uterus for fertilization.
- Chromosomal pathology. This is a fairly rare pathology, but, nevertheless, it leads to a woman's sterility.
- Immunological factor. This type of infertility is also quite rare. With this type of disorder in the female genital system, antispermic bodies are created that prevent the penetration of spermatozoa into the uterus, which makes it impossible to fertilize the egg.
- Psychological factor. To this case carry two reasons - the fear of pregnancy and childbirth; unwillingness to have a child from a particular sexual partner.
Types and degrees of infertility
There are two types of infertility - absolute and relative.
Absolute infertility - the most terrible of its variety, which is not treated. This type of infertility is caused by the abnormal development of the human body, for example, with the complete absence of any reproductive organ or its part (uterus, ovaries).
Relative infertility is not irreversible and after certain activities can be successfully overcome, which in turn will lead a normal life and have a healthy offspring. In addition to the types of infertility, there are also two degrees:
- Primary infertility (first degree) - happens in girls who have never been pregnant in their lives;
- Second infertility (second degree) - occurs in women who have been pregnant and may already have a child, but currently have some problems with conception. This kind of infertility is diagnosed in about 45% of women, who, as confirmed later, have various gynecological diseases, the consequence of which is usually the formation of adhesions. Often, the ability to conception is influenced by previous operations on the internal genitalia (including artificial medical abortion).
Symptoms of infertility
The first symptoms of possible infertility development appear in girls in the puberty period (during puberty), and they include the following symptoms:
- congenital disorders and dysfunctions of the girl's genitals;
- late menstruation - menarche at a very late age (after 16 years);
- lean menstrual flow;
- long (prolonged) menstrual cycle;
- irregularity of monthly bleeding;
- chronic diseases;
- problems of the nervous system;
- infectious diseases of the reproductive system.
Pay attention to the physical development of the girl. If it is significantly behind (strong leanness - up to 45 kg) or ahead of (overweight - over 90 kg) in the development of their peers, then in the future it can lead to infertility.
The very first sign of infertility is the destabilization of the menstrual cycle. Allocations can be both meager and abundant, often irregular and often very painful.
There are also a number of secondary external manifestations:
- increased skin fatness, acne - are symptoms of an increased number of male hormones;
- dense scalp on the face, chest, midline of the abdomen, in the bikini zone, on the hips and lower legs, forearms;
- Inadequate hair in the armpits and pubic region is evidence of low estrogen concentration, and this can affect the possibility of conception;
- the appearance in the body of the hormone prolactin (responsible for the production of milk in women during breastfeeding) can suppress the formation of eggs in the body. If a woman is not pregnant, but milk is allocated from her breast, problems may arise with conception.
The combination of various causes and external signs of infertility helps gynecologists determine the main reason to prescribe the right treatment. For example:
- in the absence of menstruation (ovulation) and with pronounced obesity, we can assume polycystic ovaries;
- due to endometriosis, women experience painful periods.
Diagnosis of infertility
The process of diagnosing infertility, as a rule, begins with a gynecologist with the patient's interview. During the conversation, the doctor sets the start date for the first menstruation, then their frequency, duration and absence or presence of painful sensations during menstruation, possible discharge from the mammary glands.
The next item of the survey will be information about the presence and number of previous pregnancies and the nature of their course (how the pregnancy was progressing - the presence of pathologies, what ended - delivery, abortion, miscarriage).
In addition, the doctor will inquire about hereditary diseases, and also, whether there were infections of genitals (venereal diseases).
When the patient first contacts the gynecologist with complaints about difficulty in conceiving, the doctor prescribes urine analysis, which determines the concentration of sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone), and also diagnoses the presence of sexual infections.
There are a number of special techniques and tests for the accurate determination of infertility:
- determining the concentration of the hormone estrogen in the body of a woman;
- establishing the internal temperature of the body - is performed (rectal thermometer) to diagnose ovarian failure, lack of ovulatory phase;
- test for establishing the presence of antispermal bodies (on the viability of spermatozoa in the cervix).
If there are adhesions in the internal genitalia, colposcopy is used to diagnose it.
In detecting endometriosis (a fairly common cause of infertility), scraping of the inner surface of the uterus and hysteroscopy can help. This operation is carried out, usually under general anesthesia. During the operation, the inner surface of the uterus is inspected, a small sample of endometrial cells is taken for laboratory examination.
The method and measures for the treatment of reproductive disorders are prescribed only after a thorough examination and diagnosis.
The most difficult process of infertility treatment is the removal of foci of infection in endometriosis. After complete removal of such foci, the achieved result is fixed with medical preparations.
Diagnosis of obstruction of the fallopian tubes requires surgical intervention. Modern methods of treatment allow the necessary operation to be performed with minimal possible harm to adjacent tissues and organs - by laparoscopy. With this method, the healing and post-operative rehabilitation process is much faster and easier.
If the cause of infertility is the failure of the endocrine system, then with the help of special pharmacological preparations, the hormonal background of the organism is corrected. In this case, the patient is assigned certain medications and is monitoring the presence of hormones in the body. After normalizing the hormonal background, the opportunity to have children is restored.
Prevention of infertility
No doubt, infertility is the most serious violation in the body of a woman, preventing her from fulfilling the inherent function of nature - the birth of offspring. The inability to have children makes nervousness and discord in the relationships of spouses, sometimes leading to divorce. Nevertheless, most women, after passing the appropriate course of treatment, sooner or later find the joy of motherhood. To avoid such problems, there are a number of measures, observing which can minimize the risk of infertility in girls:
- compliance with personal hygiene;
- proper nutrition and avoidance of excessive dietary craze;
- Abandonment of bad habits: smoking, drinking alcohol and drugs;
- Avoidance of stressful situations;
- abstinence from early sexual activity;
- an ordered sex life and the refusal of frequent changes in sexual partners;
- controlled contraceptive acceptance;
- Exclusion of abortions.
In many cases, the conscious care of one's own health can prevent infertility, because eliminating the consequences of frivolous behavior and conducting a successful course of treatment is much more difficult.
The main thing - do not self-medicate. Having established possible or probable signs, address for consultation and treatment to the doctor.