A child growing up in a woman's womb requires nutrients that he derives from his mother's body. Therefore, a disease such as anemia, quite often develops in pregnant women.
Pathology occurs as a result of a decrease in the level of hemoglobin. This condition can arise independently or as a complication against the background of another disease. Anemia is a dangerous disease, and, first of all, it concerns the normal development of the fetus. Female body because of low hemoglobin level is also experiencing significant damage.
Anemia: what is this disease?
The disease of the blood is characterized by a reduced number of red cells - erythrocytes. Under normal health conditions, the norm is 120 g / l.
However, during pregnancy, 110 g / l is considered normal, since the female body spends additional resources on the full development of the fetus.
If the indicators are below normal, then it is a blood disease - anemia or anemia. In medicine, three degrees of the disease are distinguished:
- Light form (109-90 g / l).
- The average shape (89-70 g / l).
- Heavy form (from 69 g / l and below).
A blood test during pregnancy is a mandatory procedure. The parameters of hemoglobin are considered, based on the time and the presence of concomitant pathological disorders.
Causes of low hemoglobin level
In the first months, hemoglobin may have minor deviations from normal. In this case, patients with an average form of anemia should be under constant medical supervision.
The risk group includes:
- Women who have chronic pathologies (hepatitis, inflammation of the renal system, helminthiosis, gastrointestinal tract diseases: ulcer, gastritis).
- Pregnant women who adhere to dietary nutrition or eat wrong. In general, these include fans of vegetarian cuisine or women suffering from anorexia.
- Patients who have problems with blood coagulability.
- Women who have complicated obstetric-gynecological history (miscarriages, abortions, bleeding).
- Pregnant women who expect twins, triplets, etc.
- Patients with late toxicosis (in the second half of pregnancy).
- Women in the position at the age of 18-32 years.
The last months of pregnancy are characterized by increased blood circulation, so the level of hemoglobin becomes lower than normal. That is why the number of pregnant women with anemia is increasing.
Symptoms of anemia during pregnancy
In the clinical course of the disease, characteristic symptoms may be absent, and any minor changes in the woman are written off for pregnancy. However, with severe degree of anemia, the symptomatology will have a pronounced manifestation. The main signs of low hemoglobin are:
- pale color of the skin and mucous membranes;
- general weakness;
- Congestion in the angular part of the lips;
- a violation of taste sensations;
- rapid and shortness of breath;
- pain behind the sternum.
What is the danger of low hemoglobin in pregnancy?
In the first trimester of pregnancy, the placenta is formed, with anemia, this process may have an abnormal development. Abnormalities can provoke its underdevelopment or incorrect (low) location. All these factors can cause miscarriage, bleeding, or oxygen starvation of the child.
Also, one of the complications of anemia is hypotension (or relaxation of the uterine muscles), which is accompanied by a weak labor activity. Such a disease is fraught with a serious postpartum complication - bleeding.
In addition, a baby whose mother had anemia during pregnancy may have many health problems after birth:
- a small weight;
- Underdevelopment due to oxygen starvation;
- problems with the respiratory system;
- lag in terms of physical and intellectual development.
Diagnosis of the disease can be done using a general blood test, which takes into account the level of hemoglobin and red blood cells, the color index and the amount of serum iron.
How to normalize the level of hemoglobin?
If you have problems with hemoglobin during pregnancy, then a doctor's observation is mandatory. In severe cases, or if complications occur, an examination is made at the hematologist.
Basically, the level of hemoglobin is increased with the help of special dietotherapy, which contains the maximum amount of iron and protein. The following products should be included in the nutritional diet of a pregnant woman:
- beef meat and liver;
- fish products;
- Herbs (lettuce, spinach).
Treatment with medicines consists of several stages. First, it is necessary to normalize hemoglobin, for this purpose, pregnant women are assigned iron.
For preventive purposes, women are prescribed iron and folic acid. With a reduced level of hemoglobin, the dosage of the first element is doubled. Tablets and intravenous drugs are prescribed for particularly severe forms of anemia.
A woman in a position bears a double responsibility: for herself and her future baby. Therefore, she needs to think about how to prevent health problems.
Iron deficiency anemia can be avoided with proper preventive measures.
First, the pregnant woman should lead a healthy lifestyle and often be in the fresh air.
Secondly, a balanced diet. Products included in the daily menu of women in the position, should contain all the necessary useful substances and trace elements.
It is very important that women take care of their health before pregnancy. In other words, if you have been diagnosed with anemia, then treatment is best done before conception. Otherwise, during pregnancy you will have to take iron-containing preparations.