Despite the fact that the second trimester of pregnancy, which began with the fourth month, is considered the most calm and safe, the future mother, as before, must be protected. Among other things - to fully eat, walk in the fresh air, relax and sleep, watch the weight and blood pressure.
A child in four months of pregnancy
This month, the formation of the child's internal organs is almost completed: the kidneys themselves independently excrete urine into the amniotic fluid, the adrenal glands produce hormones, the nervous system and the endocrine system control all the functions of the small organism, and the immune system is actively developing. The development and growth of the baby's brain continues: the fourth month is marked by the formation of the cerebral cortex.
Now the function of transportation to the child of all nutrients and nutrients is performed by the placenta, it is also responsible for the removal of harmful substances and waste of life, for the protection of crumbs from harmful viruses and bacteria.
At the fourth month of pregnancy, the baby already flexes legs and pens, squeezes his hands into fists, he has a grasping and sucking reflexes. In the same month, hair on the head, eyebrows and eyelashes will begin to grow, and marigolds will form. At the same time, on the body of the crumbs there is an embryonic fluff - lanugo, which will retain a special protective lubricant, secreted by the skin.
The child already knows how to frown, and by the end of the month and at all slightly open his eyes. As a result of the fourth month, the baby will grow to 16-20 cm, its weight reaches 200 g.
Sensations and possible problems of the fourth month of pregnancy
This month, there is a gradual improvement in overall well-being: , increased appetite, increased activity. The figure changes sensitively: the uterus grows rapidly, accordingly, the tummy is rounded and the waist is smoothed, the mammary glands are enlarged, but, fortunately, gradually passes their soreness and puffiness.
In the fourth month, the appearance of pigment spots on the skin, the appearance or darkening of the already existing freckles. In addition, the strip on the abdomen becomes more pronounced, the nipples and areoles darken as well.
Due to the large amount of fluid in the body, there may be increased sweating and some increase in whitish vaginal discharge. With any changes in the nature of the discharge - if their color changes, the consistency, the discharge is accompanied by itching and / or burning - you should consult a doctor, because with such symptoms, you probably need treatment for an infection.
At 4 months of pregnancy, periodic headaches and dizziness are still possible, During tooth cleaning, there may be a slight bleeding of the gums. There is some nasal congestion, and in the event that small vessels can not stand - nosebleeds.
Constipation, as a consequence of hormonal changes in the body and the pressure of the grown uterus on the intestine, can become an extremely unpleasant problem. Constipation is best avoided by carefully monitoring the diet, and if still constipation is manifested - try to quickly fix the digestive system and intestine in particular. After all, it is often constipation that causes a painful and delicate disease - hemorrhoids.
In the fourth month, the uterus is already outside the small pelvis, and its growth continues in the abdominal cavity. A significant increase in the uterus is accompanied by sprain, which many future mothers feel in the form of drawing pains in the lower abdomen. That's just to determine the nature of pain and exclude the possible risk of losing a child, you should always consult about the painful feelings with your doctor.
Nutrition in the fourth month of pregnancy
The appetite for pregnant mummy at this stage of bearing a baby can only be envied: the toxicosis has become just an unpleasant memory, and now the woman is increasingly drawn to "eat-snack-chew ". At the same time, now it is just necessary to monitor the weight to avoid excessive correction and avoid the less or more severe complications associated with it (for example, stretch marks on the skin or, worse, diabetes maternal).
Therefore, it is important to properly organize a diet and choose those products that can meet the need of the woman's body and the life inside her in useful and nutritious substances. Making up the daily menu, it should be borne in mind that for a month a woman should average in the range of 2-2.5 kg.
Specialists recommend this way to organize meals at 4 months of pregnancy, so as not to allow hunger and food to be used with maximum benefit. So, you should eat more often, but in small portions, most of the food is eaten in the morning: the first and second breakfast should be nutritious enough, lunch - the most satisfying, in the evening you should eat easily digestible foods. In the same time, practically unlimited quantities during the day are allowed to eat fruits and vegetables (except for citrus, fresh cabbage, causing bloating and potatoes, rich in carbohydrates and starch).
Food for a pregnant woman should be as natural as possible: fast food, semi-finished products, smoked products, marinades are banned. In addition, salt foods should be discarded (salt provokes fluid retention in the body and development of edema), from sweet and confectionery delights ("fast" carbohydrates contribute to a very fast weight gain, in addition, do not give any "benefits" to the developing baby).
In the diet of the future mother must necessarily be present lean meat and fish, as the main source of protein. Milk and cottage cheese will provide the body with the necessary calcium, sour-milk products will have a beneficial effect on the work of the intestines. Again, for normal intestinal motility will need fruits and vegetables, which also put vitamins, macro-, microelements. Inseparable "elements" of the diet of a pregnant woman should also be cereal cereals, whole wheat bread, vegetable and butter, nuts. To avoid anemia, you should enrich the diet with foods rich in iron - beef, liver, pomegranates, dried apricots.
However, it should be borne in mind that iron is poorly digested from food, it may be necessary to supplement it in the vitamin-mineral complex. In addition to the increased need for iron at this time, the body of a pregnant woman, and with it - a crumb in the mother's tummy - need a sufficient amount of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, B vitamins. Therefore it is quite possible that a doctor will make a decision about taking a pregnant woman of this or that vitamin-mineral complex.
Sex in the fourth month of pregnancy
Is sex allowed in the fourth month of pregnancy? Very much so, but: provided that the presenter did not give a warning about the impossibility of intima during this period. Sex in the fourth month of pregnancy also acquires new colors and shades, that now, after the first months of adaptation of the organism to a new condition, a woman "reborn" and is capable of physical love with renewed vigor and ecstasy. All this, of course, is excellent, but there are quite clear contra-indications on which it is better to refuse affinity now.
These can be:
- bloody discharge, vaginal bleeding;
- high risk of miscarriage;
- damage to the bladder;
- the presentation or low location of the placenta;
- infection of the genital tract in women;
- sexually transmitted infections in the spouse.
Analyzes and examinations at 4 months of pregnancy
With a normal course of pregnancy, a "date" with a doctor this month for a pregnant woman will be held once. During the scheduled visit, the specialist measures the future mum's weight and blood pressure, listens to the fetal heart, performs palpation to determine the size and height of the uterine fundus. Besides, the urinalysis will traditionally be submitted - to identify the protein and determine the level of sugar.
Perhaps a woman will be advised to undergo a so-called triple (or "simplified" double) test. This screening analysis determines the concentration in the blood of three substances produced by the mother and the placenta: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and estriol (E3). The optimal time for it is 15-16 weeks of pregnancy. Prenatal screening in the form of a triple test can reveal the risks of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal malformations, such as Down's syndrome, Edwards syndrome, neural tube defects. However, it should be remembered that the triple (double) test is by no means diagnostic, with its help it is possible to assume only increased risks. If the results of the analysis are not satisfactory, an in-depth examination will be recommended to the woman.