Thyroid gland and pregnancy

How does the thyroid affect pregnancy?

Features of the functioning of the thyroid gland of a pregnant woman

It is very important for the pregnant woman to be interested in the state of her thyroid gland, since this organ, if it does not function, does not hurt, and its increase may long remain unnoticed.

The thyroid gland of the pregnant woman feels a double load, because now she works on two organisms at once. The child's thyroid gland is placed on the 4th-5th week of intrauterine development, from the 12th week it begins to function (to accumulate iodine and synthesize hormones), and by 16-17th it has already been fully formed and actively functions. In addition, the only source of iodine for the child's thyroid gland is the iodine that circulates in the mother's blood. If the woman's nutrition is not enough iodine, the thyroid gland sharply reduces the production of hormones. And this is dangerous violations in the development of the baby: even if he is born physically healthy, his mental abilities may be lower than that of his peers. Therefore, we conclude: the nutrition of the pregnant woman should be full and balanced. A lot of iodine is found in seafood: fish, sea cabbage. Also rich in iodine is kiwi, persimmon, feijoa.

Diseases of the thyroid

Among the main disorders in the thyroid gland are hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Both conditions have a negative effect on the fetus and the outcome of pregnancy.

Hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis) - increased activity of the thyroid gland. During pregnancy, this condition is dangerous due to the occurrence of cardiovascular insufficiency and other complications in women, violations of the course of labor, as well as the risk of congenital thyroid diseases in the baby.

While in this state, a woman can feel weakness, fatigue, a feeling of heat. A fever is possible. In addition, a patient with hyperthyroidism, as a rule, is irritable, feels a sense of fear, he is troubled by insomnia. Among the symptoms of hyperthyroidism, there are still: a rapid pulse, irregular heartbeats, increased blood pressure, muscle weakness, trembling of the hands and whole body, anorexia, frequent loose stool, stomach pain, sweating, hair loss. Affects hyperthyroidism and the appearance of a woman - she notes an unhealthy gleam of the eyes, widening of the eye cracks, loss in weight.

American scientists have proven that the excess of thyroid hormones has a toxic effect on the human fetus, that is, self-poisoning of the body. If it is not treated, or treated incompetently, then there is a risk of gestosis of the second half of pregnancy, premature birth, malformations of the newborn, low weight of the fetus. In thyrotoxicosis, there is often a risk of spontaneous miscarriage (especially in the early stages) and early toxicosis, which is difficult and difficult to treat (often in such cases the pregnancy is interrupted). The earlier the disease is diagnosed and the necessary measures are taken, the better the prognosis for the mother and the child.

Patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis) are prescribed drugs that suppress the function of the thyroid gland. In some cases, a surgical operation is carried out to remove part of the thyroid tissue. Perform this operation not earlier than the second trimester of pregnancy.

Hypothyroidism is the opposite of hyperthyroidism, at which the thyroid gland does not work efficiently, as a result of which the necessary amount of hormones is not produced. Usually, with hypothyroidism, the pregnant woman complains of general weakness, decreased performance, convulsive muscle contractions, joint pain, drowsiness, depression, forgetfulness, decreased attention and intelligence, weight gain, bradycardia and a decrease in respiratory rate, dry skin, hair loss, rough voice , nausea, constipation, swelling of the skin. Hypothyroidism is also capable of provoking miscarriage or death of the fetus, also cases of stillbirth or the birth of children with various disorders, such as, for example, mental retardation, deaf-mute, strabismus, dwarfism, etc. are possible. To avoid all this, appoint an additional reception of a hormone of a thyroxine, and also conduct iodine prophylaxis (preparations containing potassium iodide).

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