Sinusitis (purulent inflammation of the maxillary sinuses of the nose) is also called rhinosinusitis. It is one-sided, when one of the sinuses is inflamed, or bilateral, when two sinuses hurt immediately. Also, the sinusitis can be acute (which has arisen for the first time and is marked by an acute course of the disease) or chronic (it becomes an acute sinusitis with inadequate treatment or in the absence of treatment as such). As a rule, chronic sinusitis is considered, which does not stop for 6 weeks. Develops maxillary sinusitis usually due to a variety of infections of the upper respiratory tract, various pathological processes occurring in the nasal cavity, mouth, pharynx. Gaimorov's sinus is an air cavity, lying in the thickness of the maxillary bone. Her role, along with other paranasal sinuses, in the body is very high:
- Forming an individual voice of the voice
- Warming and purifying the air passing through the nose
- Reducing the mass of the facial skull and the formation of individual facial features
Causes of sinusitis
The most common cause of sinusitis are various kinds of infections: staphylococcus, streptococci, hemophilus, viruses, chlamydia, mycoplasmas, fungi. No less often it develops as a complication of the infection of the upper respiratory tract (ARI). Hard to imagine, but the source of infection for the appearance of sinusitis can serve as a sick tooth or inflammation of the tonsils. Also, the cause of sinusitis can be curvature of the nasal septum or allergic reactions of the body.
Symptoms of sinusitis
As noted at the beginning, sinus congestion is characterized by nasal congestion (possibly one-sided), severe pain in the face (below the eye), discharge of a rich mucus from the nose with a greenish hue. In acute sinusitis, an increase in temperature is observed. In chronic sinusitis, the most pronounced symptom of the disease is a persistent night cough that does not respond to traditional treatment. Attacks of a cough hurt a person, as the pus flows from the affected sinus to the back wall of the pharynx. Also, a person suffering from chronic sinusitis often has a runny nose, a stuffy nose, persistent keratitis and conjunctivitis. Another common symptom is a headache.
To determine the nature and extent of the disease, the most informative method is the radiography of the sinuses. But with pregnancy it is not worth using. The only possible method of diagnosis for pregnant women is a medical-diagnostic sinus puncture, or, in a simple way, a "puncture". The positive thing about this procedure is that it is also part of the curative "program".
Treatment of sinusitis in pregnant women
Treatment of sinusitis includes a set of measures to restore drainage and suppress the focus of infection in the maxillary sinus.
With genyantritis developing against the background of pregnancy, there is a danger not only for the health of the mother, but also for the child. Therefore, it is especially important to diagnose and start treatment of this disease as soon as possible. One of the most dangerous period for the development of the fetus is the first months of pregnancy, when the child is laying down all vital systems and organs.
As we have just said, one of the methods of treating sinusitis during pregnancy is a puncture. The essence of this procedure is that the doctor punctures the paranasal sinus with a special sterile needle. Then, using a syringe, he sucks out pus, and a special disinfectant medical solution is poured into the sinuses. Immediately after the procedure, the patient feels significant relief: the nose begins to breathe, the headaches go away, the pressure in the sinuses decreases.
As for taking medications, it must be remembered that many of them are contraindicated in pregnancy, so they often stop at the local procedures, which is the above manipulation. Drugs that are administered inside (in the sinuses) should be safe for both the mother and the baby. One such medication is, for example, miramistin.
Nasal sprays and drops that contain vasoconstrictive drugs (for example, nazivin, otilin, pharmazoline, prinos, etc.) are effectively used to remove the edema of the mucous membrane and open the sinus outlet. But pregnant drugs are contraindicated. In very rare cases, when the situation is already very complicated, the doctor can allow the taking of vasoconstrictor. In this case, the pregnant woman should choose the ones that are allowed for infants. It is recommended to conduct similar procedures two or three times, no more.
Positive reviews in the treatment of sinusitis got a preparation of sinupret, which liquefies the contents of the sinuses. It is produced both in droplets and in tablets. Pregnant is the second option, since the drops contain alcohol.
Very often, antimicrobial therapy is used to treat sinusitis. The most common of them: augmentin, cephalosproins of the 3rd generation, azithromycin. In pregnancy, in some situations, they can also prescribe an antibiotic. Its name is spiramycin.
Because during pregnancy, and especially in the early stages, the use of antibiotics is undesirable, then carry out another, fairly effective procedure. Its essence is administered by local antibiotics and antiseptics directly into the maxillary sinuses. In addition, washing of the nasal cavity and sinuses with various solutions is used: saline, herbal, antiseptic. It is also possible to use local antibiotics in the form of aerosols, as well as agents that dilute the contents of the sinuses. Along with antibiotics, antihistamines are also taken, which also help reduce the swelling of the mucosa.
Another procedure allowed during pregnancy, except puncture, is the washing of the maxillary sinuses by the method of moving the fluid. In the people this method is called "cuckoo". This is explained by the peculiarity of the procedure, during which the patient lies on the back on the couch, the head is located below the entire body, the doctor pours an antiseptic solution into one nostril (sometimes with the addition of an antibiotic), and from the second, at the same time, sucks the fluid along with pus with the help of a special device, the patient at this time repeats "ku-ku-ku-ku-ku ...". It is this sound that creates a negative pressure in the nasal cavity and does not allow liquid to enter the throat or lungs. During the procedure, do not inhale, otherwise the liquid with pus will get into the respiratory tract. Due to the negative pressure formed in the nasal cavity, evacuation of pus from the sinuses takes place, and the drug solution, intensively moving through the nasal cavity, rinses the sinuses. As a result of cleansing the sinuses, inflammation is cured.