The effect of high blood sugar on pregnancy
This phenomenon occurs when the baby is born, because there is a poor sensitivity of tissues to insulin. But diabetes can precede the onset of pregnancy. Be that as it may, a high level of sugar is a danger to the future mother and her child, because excess glucose concentration increases the risk of miscarriage, gestosis, pyelonephritis, complications in labor (caesarean section may need to be performed). All these risks depend on the adequacy of diabetes therapy.
For pregnant women, there are standards of carbohydrate metabolism. So, the sugar index in the blood on an empty stomach should not exceed 5, 1 mM / l. If it is above 7, 0 mM / l, then the diagnosis is "manifest diabetes". He means, that after the appearance of the baby, the woman will have the disease, and the treatment will need to continue.
When the index of sugar in the blood of a future mother on an empty stomach is in the range from 5, 1 mM / l to 7, 0 mM / l, then they diagnose "gestational diabetes mellitus". In such a situation, one can hope for the normalization of carbohydrate metabolism after childbirth.
If you rely on medical statistics, with diabetes miscarriages occur spontaneously every third pregnancy. And this is caused by premature aging of the placenta. After all, its vessels are damaged because of the excess of glucose in the blood. As a result of such a negative phenomenon, the full supply of the fetus with oxygen and nutrients is stopped.
The negative trend of the influence of diabetes mellitus is also manifested in the risk of developing late toxicosis. This occurs after 20-22 weeks of age in half of pregnant women. Late toxicosis, as a rule, is associated with a low level of estrogen. Since sugar damages the ovaries, they can not provide the female body with estrogens.
Toxicosis in such cases is manifested by obvious or hidden swelling, weight gain, the appearance of protein in the urine, increased blood pressure. Also in women with high glucose levels, it is possible to develop polyhydramnios. This pathology develops in 60% of pregnancies.
It is also possible to twist the umbilical cord, fetal hypoxia, its pelvic presentation.
A future mother's increased sugar levels can threaten vision impairment, retinal detachment, development of heart failure. Against the background of increased sugar, infectious diseases, for example, pyelonephritis, sometimes develop.
How to reduce blood sugar in pregnancy
First you need to put in order the diet. And for this it is necessary to observe such rules:
- Eliminate easily assimilated carbohydrates from the menu. It's all kinds of confectionery and sweet fruit. Their high glycemic index requires a large amount of insulin to lower the blood sugar level to normal.
- Do not eat fast food. These include freeze-dried potatoes, noodles, soups and lunches.
- Give preference to foods rich in fiber. It stimulates the work of the intestines, slowing the absorption of excess sugar into the blood. Such products, in addition, contain many minerals, organic acids, vitamins.
- Do not use products with "hidden" fats. These are sausages, sausages, sausages, smoked meat, bacon. An alternative to them are beef, chicken, turkey.
- Choose gentle treatment of products. Cook, bake, cook for a couple.
- Eat dairy products with a low percentage of fat.
If diet therapy is ineffective within a week, the attending physician decides on the need for hypoglycemic therapy. And this is pregnancy only insulin injections. After all, sugar-reducing tablets for future mothers are contraindicated - they negatively affect the fetus.
Insulin therapy is prescribed by a pregnant woman to prevent the development of diabetic fetopathy.