Screening: what, where, when?
The word "screening" comes from English screening - "sifting". So the methods of special checks and examinations are called, which are used not only in medicine, but also in biochemistry, business and other spheres of life.
Medical screening is the conduct of safe special studies in order to identify the risk of developing a particular pathology. In other words, screening refers to the method of determining a specific disease or factors contributing to it (risk factors). To conduct screening, make a screening survey, that is testing.
Screening as a method of research is used in different fields of medicine. For example, in genetics - for the timely detection of diseases transmitted by inheritance. And in this sphere the most successful was the detection of genetically caused metabolic disorders.
In cardiology, this method of research is used to identify ischemia, arterial hypertension and risk factors that contribute to the development of these diseases.
As for the methodological procedure for screening, it can be one-stage or consist of several stages. Repeated screening studies provide an opportunity to assess the stability of the indicators that are being studied.
It should be noted that screening is not mandatory for the patient procedure. With regard to medical personnel, screening studies enable physicians to identify characteristic trends in people's health. Observing medical statistics based on screening, scientists defend their thesis.
Screening for pregnancy
Since screening is of great importance for pregnant women and the health of a future nation, we will consider in detail how it is carried out. Prenatal screening is done for future mothers to identify risk groups for complications of childbearing. It makes it possible to identify pregnant women with the risk of having babies with Down syndromes or Edwards syndromes, anencephaly.
The first screening for a future mother is scheduled between 11 and 14 weeks. With the help of ultrasound, the thickness of the collar space of a future child is measured, its approximate age is calculated and the PDR (the preliminary date of birth) is specified. In addition to ultrasound, a pregnant woman gives blood to 2 hormones. This is the so-called double test. The first screening makes it possible to exclude Down syndrome from a future baby.
The second screening is prescribed to a pregnant woman between 16 and 18 weeks. At this stage, only a triple test is possible.
All the data of the doctor is entered into the computer program to calculate the possible risks.
A special leaflet is given to the future mother, where the results of a screening test appear. If it is done in the direction of the attending physician of a pregnant woman, the results are usually waiting for three weeks. When a woman is screened in a paid clinic, she gets results much faster - in 2-3 days. This leaflet indicates whether all the indicators fit into the norm, whether there is a threat of abortion and congenital malformations of the fetus. A female doctor who watches a woman with such a leaflet on her hands will explain to her patient in a competent and accessible manner how her pregnancy is going, and if there are risks, she will prescribe treatment.
In case of high risk of birth of an incomplete child, the future mother goes to a consultation with a geneticist. He, having carefully read the information on the sheet, also asks the woman about the genetic predisposition to certain diseases, that is, about hereditary diseases. And this information a pregnant woman should know. It is very important to talk with your mother, the mother of the spouse in order to avoid the risks of the birth of an inferior child. After such a conversation, the geneticist gives the woman a conclusion about the likelihood of vices of the future baby. If the risk is great, then the doctor can offer a woman an invasive study, for example, the analysis of amniotic fluid. This is a rather risky manipulation, which should be carried out by a qualified doctor. The result of the invasive examination will put all the points in doubt.
So, screening is an important medical research, which is informative and preventive in nature. Warned about the risks - means, armed. Therefore, do not abandon this procedure, which has long ceased to be an innovation, helps doctors and patients.