Many of us do not even guess what processes occur in the female body every time - from month to month. And all this for the sake of a single - possible conception.
We know that every 21-35 days in the body of a woman, ovulation occurs - the egg is released from a graafa vesicle (ripened follicle). She leaves her home in the hope of meeting a viable sperm and becoming fertilized. And if this does not happen, next month the same fate is repeated by another egg, of which there are tens or hundreds of thousands in the ovaries.
Ovulation is not the only preparatory stage on the way to possible conception. After the rupture of the follicle, a body is formed from its granular cells, which is called yellow by the color of the substance inside it. The yellow body is a temporary endocrine gland in the female body. Its main function is the production of female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone). Progesterone, also called the pregnancy hormone, creates favorable conditions for the implantation of the blastocyst in the uterine cavity and the further bearing of the fetus. He suppresses the contractile activity of the uterine musculature and prepares the endometrium for active further growth. At the same time, progesterone prevents the onset of the next ovulation, activates the breast zone responsible for producing milk, affects the nervous system of the future mother in a certain way, preparing it for bearing and giving birth to the child.
If there is not enough progesterone in the body, then the woman can not be pregnant (a fertilized egg does not cling to the uterus), or take out a baby (an unprepared endometrium rejects an alien body for him).
In addition to the yellow body, progesterone is secreted by the adrenal glands, but in a very small amount. This is why the yellow body is formed every time after ovulation - without it it is impossible to attack and bear pregnancy.
The level of hormones produced by the yellow body gradually increases. However, if conception does not occur, then the yellow body atrophies as it does not need, and dies within 12-14 days. At the same time the level of progesterone drops sharply - and menstruation begins. Such an unclaimed yellow body is called false (or menstrual) - in its place remains a whitish body, which soon also completely disappears by itself.
Support the vitality of the yellow body can only hCG - a hormone produced by the chorion. That is, the yellow body does not die only in the case of the conception that has taken place. Then it is called true and does not just remain alive, but it also produces hormones more actively. The yellow body works until the child's place (placenta) completely ripens, which will take away the function of producing progesterone and estrogen on itself. This happens on the average at 10-16 weeks, but it happens that the yellow body continues to function until the very end of pregnancy.
Possible cysts in the development and functioning of the yellow body may be a cyst or functional failure. The first condition poses no danger to the occurrence of pregnancy or the health of a woman - the tumor resolves itself, so it does not require any treatment. But in the second case there is a real threat of termination of pregnancy - this situation necessarily requires correction. Even if a miscarriage in the first or second trimester did not occur in the phase of the yellow body, the risk of developing placental insufficiency remains. Therefore, functional failure is considered a pathology. Today, special safe preparations have been developed for its treatment.