Even for women who already have a child or children, another pregnancy can present many surprises. And the first pregnancy usually causes a lot of questions, doubts, anxieties.
This is a normal physiological process, the body of a woman by nature is created for the mission of bearing a child. But in this case, the features of the course of pregnancy can vary significantly among different women, and even in one and the same second pregnancy can significantly differ from the first.
For the future mother, as well as her husband, it is very important to understand that in this position it is normal and what is an alarming symptom, so as not to panic in vain, but in case of a real threat, seek help in a timely manner.
On the onset of pregnancy, different women learn differently. Someone plans it, looks forward to the birth of a new life, runs after the test in the first days of the delay.
Someone has suspicions associated with delaying menstruation, morning sickness, the appearance of strange taste preferences and other signs, and at the reception of a gynecologist they are confirmed.
Sometimes pregnancy goes unnoticed until quite late, when the fetal movements begin.
The sooner a woman learns about pregnancy and turns to the specialists who will carry out her management, the better.
This will make it possible to make the necessary adjustments to the lifestyle in a timely manner, to pass all important surveys, if possible to eliminate or minimize the existing threats.
In some cases, the examination reveals an indication for abortion, and in the early stages the consequences of such intervention will be the least traumatic.
Therefore, every woman who lives sexually should know about the signs of pregnancy.
A blood test from a vein to a hCG hormone allows you to diagnose a pregnancy on the 7-10th day after fertilization, usually those who wait for it do not wait for this event.
If a woman is used to measuring the basal temperature and guide her schedule, she can learn about conception by raising the temperature to 37 and above.
The delay in menstruation is the most characteristic sign of pregnancy, but it can also be caused by other causes.
In case of menstrual irregularities, the delay may be unnoticed, and in rare cases, bloody discharge does not stop even after pregnancy, but this is an anomaly, usually indicative of the threat of interruption.
Toxicosis, especially in the form of morning sickness, is a frequent companion of pregnancy, but not all women suffer from it.
The frequency of urination caused by a change in the hormonal background, is observed from 2 weeks of pregnancy.
Soreness of the mammary glands and nipples (may indicate the proximity of menstruation), pigmentation of the nipples, allocation of colostrum.
Herpes zoster can be a sign of PMS, normal pregnancy, or some pathology, so this sign is not sufficiently informative.
Rarely when introducing a fertilized egg into the uterus, there is a so-called implantation bleeding, scanty and short-term.
To resolve many doubts the pregnancy test will help, there are a lot of them. If there are signs of pregnancy, and the result of the test is negative, it is worth repeating it through the recommended interval.
And if suspicions are confirmed, you can go to the gynecologist, become registered and follow all his recommendations.
The optimal time for registration is 6-12 weeks, in earlier terms, a routine examination will not reveal anything and any interference is impractical. The exception is complicated cases, when measures to preserve pregnancy should be taken from the first days.
From the moment of registration and up to the 20th week, monthly visits to the gynecologist are necessary if the pregnancy is normal.
20-32 weeks is the period when you need to undergo an examination every 2 weeks. 32-40 weeks - weekly observations are needed.
Any changes in health, anxiety symptoms are a reason for an unscheduled treatment for a gynecologist.
In normal pregnancy during the first examination, the genitals and mammary glands are examined, the height, weight, pelvic dimensions, arterial pressure, vaginal examination, strokes are measured.
The patient is also referred for examination by narrow specialists, analyzes and hardware studies.
Let's talk about the difficulties
The management of a complicated pregnancy has its own characteristics. More careful observation is required in such cases:
- Late pregnancy (woman over 35 years of age) requires additional tests for chromosomal abnormalities, increased risk of miscarriage, more indications for cesarean section
- Presence of chronic diseases of the kidneys, heart and vessels, other extragenital (not related to the reproductive system) pathologies. In parallel with observation, a gynecologist needs constant monitoring from a specialist of the appropriate profile - nephrologist, cardiologist, endocrinologist and others. The risk of fetal pathologies is increased, so additional tests are needed.
- Habitual miscarriages in the anamnesis. In such a situation, hospitalization and bed rest are often shown from the first days of pregnancy, all measures are taken to preserve it.
- Rhesus-conflict - timely diagnostics, regular tests, maintenance therapy are important.
- Pertination of pregnancy - hospitalization is necessary, constant supervision of specialists and decision-making on the expediency of labor stimulation
Special attention of specialists is also demanded by such cases:
- Multiple pregnancy
- anomalies in the structure of the genital organs and pelvic bones
- water scarcity and polyhydramnios
- excessive or inadequate weight gain in a pregnant woman
- severe toxicosis, gestosis, marked swelling
- features of placenta formation, premature aging and low placentation
- Vaginal bleeding.
Any unaccustomed conditions, unpleasant sensations should be reported to the doctor. He will tell the most sparing methods that will minimize discomfort, and will calm down if such manifestations in pregnant women are normal.
On the other hand, even seemingly minor symptoms can indicate serious problems, so it's better to be safe and tell them about it to a specialist.
Analyzes and examinations
During pregnancy, a woman has to take a lot of tests even under normal conditions, and if there are any complications, their list expands.
The Ministry of Health recommends that such examinations be conducted:
- 5-12 weeks. Blood tests for the group and Rh factor, hemoglobin level, biochemical composition, coagulability, infections; smear on STI, general urine analysis
- 11-13 weeks. It is recommended to take a blood test to identify the developmental fetuses, it is supplemented with ultrasound results, these are the components of the first perinatal screening.
- 14-20 weeks. In some cases, a repeated comprehensive examination is prescribed, and blood is also given for analysis in the framework of the triple test for Down's syndrome.
- 16 weeks. The optimal time for repeated blood and urine tests. Particular attention is paid to the level of hemoglobin and protein content in the urine, during this period anemia and pyelonephritis usually develop. If serious abnormalities are detected, appropriate treatment is prescribed, often with hospitalization, and analyzes are conducted regularly, until the indicators are normalized.
- 25 weeks Urinalysis
- 28 weeks. Blood and urine analysis
- 30 weeks. The majority of analyzes performed during registration are re-performed, an exchange card is issued.
In the future, the urine test is given before each visit to the gynecologist.
Along with laboratory analyzes, when registering, it is necessary to pass an ECG. It is also recommended 3-5 times during pregnancy to undergo ultrasound:
- 5-6 weeks: to exclude an ectopic pregnancy;
- 11-12 weeks: first screening for fetal pathology
- 22 weeks: estimated fetal size, placenta and internal organs
- 32 weeks: Doppler for evaluation of placental function
- 36-38 weeks: Ultrasound is indicated with low placentation. The size, the position of the fetus, the blood flow are estimated, the prognosis regarding the timing of labor is made, the indications for cesarean section are revealed.
Beginning at week 36, cardiocography is performed at each examination to examine the cardiac activity of the fetus and the effects of uterine contractions on it.
Diseases and health problems
Unfortunately, during pregnancy, a woman is not immune from illness. Increases the burden on all organs, which can provoke an exacerbation of existing and emerging new diseases.
They can affect various organs, the diseases of the reproductive system are fraught with interruption of pregnancy, other ailments complicate its course, may adversely affect the development of the fetus.
The situation is complicated by the fact that pregnancy is a contraindication to the use of many habitual medicines.
Against the background of weakened immunity and hormonal changes, bacterial diseases of the vagina, fraught with infection of amniotic fluid, pathologies of fetal development and miscarriage, may develop.
Parasitic diseases are very dangerous for the child - helminthiasis, toxoplasmosis. Viruses of herpes, hepatitis, detected in the body of a pregnant woman - a very serious problem.
A lot of problems are associated with disruption of the digestive tract and excretory system - heartburn, constipation and diarrhea.
A variety of colds, respiratory illnesses, from coughs and runny nose to sinusitis, bronchitis require immediate treatment under the supervision of a doctor.
During pregnancy, the burden on the kidneys increases, they become more vulnerable to infections, one of the most common diseases is gestational pyelonephritis.
Often, the cardiovascular system suffers, tachycardia, an increase or decrease in pressure, varicosity.
Basic knowledge about pregnancy, its symptoms, timing, flow characteristics will help a woman to more adequately assess her own condition.
But without regular observation at the gynecologist and examination at the narrow specialists in this period can not do, especially if there are complications.
The specialist will appoint all the necessary tests, while diagnosing the disease, recommend an effective but gentle treatment, make every effort to prevent complications and safely resolve a complicated pregnancy.