Visually, problems with the veins may look like "spider veins" and "worms". In the first case we are talking about translucent small vessels, similar to the arachnoid network. They have a blue or purple color, but do not rise above the surface of the skin. "Worms" - is, on the contrary, the expansion of the main veins. As a rule, their bulging, swelling is observed. Such veins, sometimes with a diameter of a finger, have a blue-green color. But varicose veins are not just a cosmetic defect. It is a disease that is extremely dangerous for its complications. Among them, the most common: thrombophlebitis, trophic ulcers, bleeding. The most dangerous formation of thrombus, which can come off and create an immediate threat to the life of the mother and child.
What is varicose veins? Symptoms of the disease
The mechanism of the formation of varicose veins during pregnancy is as follows: blood along the channel of the arteries is "pumped" into the lower limbs, but is retained there, because the veins are partially compressed and can not provide sufficient blood flow. As a consequence, stagnation of venous blood occurs, which opens the veins from the inside.
The initial stages of varicose veins for women are virtually asymptomatic - outwardly only a slight deformation of the veins is detected. In this case, by the end of the day, edema appears, which completely disappear by morning. As a rule, edema is accompanied by a feeling of heaviness, "puffiness" of legs, fatigue.
If the condition is more neglected, cramping of the calf muscles may occur. Basically, they disturb the pregnant woman at night. Further the disease is aggravated by severe pain in the legs and itching of the skin, also intensifying at night.
The next stage of development of varicose veins is a significant deformity. In this case, the veins protrude above the skin, they are enlarged, sometimes bizarrely curved. It is worth noting that in some cases (even with severe deformity of the veins), a woman may not have unpleasant or painful sensations. At the same time, changes that are not noticeable to the eye can often be combined with severe pain symptoms. As a rule, the causes of the onset or aggravation of the disease during pregnancy are: hormonal changes in the body (which leads to a weakening of the venous wall), an increased volume of blood in the veins (as a result of which the load on the veins increases significantly), the pressure growing uterus and fetus, the increasing weight of a pregnant woman. Besides, affect the individual characteristics of the woman's organism, in particular the elasticity of the walls of the vessels, the underdevelopment or even the complete absence of venous valves.
Often during pregnancy, not only varicose veins of the lower extremities are observed, but also varicosity of the labia, vulva, anus (hemorrhoids). If the treatment is not performed on time, extensive vulvar varicose veins can lead to a ruptured vein, thereby provoking fatal bleeding.
Prevention of varicose veins during pregnancy
Preventive measures should be taken for those women who have the disease "just appeared on the horizon" and those who do not have obvious manifestations of it. During pregnancy, for this purpose, it is necessary to wear compression stockings (anti-varicose tights during pregnancy do not apply) or tightly wrap the legs with elastic bandages. The first option is most convenient, since it does not require training for the special technique of bandage required in the case of bandages. But you should know that it is unacceptable to choose your own stockings yourself, this should be done by a phlebologist. He will take into account the degree of compression you need, teach you how to use this product correctly. For example, a doctor will tell you that you need to put on stockings in the morning in a lying position, without getting out of bed. In addition, do not wear clothes that interfere with free circulation in the hips and knees. Choose shoes with a heel 3-5 cm.
The following measures, which should be taken, - Improvement of blood circulation in the legs with the help of physical exercises and changes in position. This means that it is necessary to give legs as often as possible a rest and unload them. From time to time, you should lie down, and so that your feet are on a hill (the option of throwing your feet on a table in the American manner is quite appropriate). Also important is the performance of special simple exercises: circular movements of the feet, "bicycle", lifting on the toes, rolling "sock-heel". You can lie on your back, raise your legs at an angle of 90 degrees (or straighten them) and shake.
During sleep, try to lie on your left side to improve blood flow. Do not cross your legs when sitting, and do not stand for a long period of time. If you have to stand for a long time, periodically rise on your toes. Useful will be visits to the pool.
Make sure that the weight gain is not very significant, that is, above the norm, since this has a very negative effect on the condition of the veins.
Treatment of varicose during pregnancy
Treatment of varicose veins during pregnancy, as well as other diseases, is unacceptable by itself. This should be handled by a specialist.
In most cases, treatment of this disease in pregnant women should be limited to conservative methods aimed at improving venous outflow. For treatment, all those measures that we described in the previous section: wearing special stockings, exercise therapy are relevant. Here you can also take walks in the fresh air, climbing and descending stairs. The basis of nutrition of a pregnant woman suffering from varicose veins should be vegetables, lean meat, fish, cottage cheese, eggs.
The most common treatment for varicose during pregnancy is using local drugs: gels, ointments. However, it must be taken into account that not every remedy is now suitable, since the active substance penetrates into the blood and can be dangerous for the child. The most famous of them: ESSAVEN-GEL, LYOTON 1000-GEL, DICLOPHENAK-GEL, FASTUM-GEL, VENORUTON-GEL, GINCOR-GEL. The doctor will pick the right one
Today, the pharmaceutical market is full of medicines, the action of which is directed to the treatment of varicose veins. But the most preferable in the period of bearing the child is recognized DETRALEKS. There is another drug, VENOROTON, which is contraindicated for use in the first three months, but is allowed after, as well as during breastfeeding. At the same time, treatment with ENDOTELON, ESCUZAN and DOXIUM is unacceptable. Along with phlebotrophic drugs, preparations of other pharmaceutical groups are used: IBUPROFEN, DICLOPHENAK, VOBENZIM, FLOGENZIM, PENTOXYPHYLIN, ASPIRIN, DIPIRIDAMOL. True, their use is limited and possible only in accordance with strict indications of the attending physician.
In particularly difficult cases, with rapid progression of the disease (or complications such as ascending thrombophlebitis, trophic ulcer), surgical treatment is performed. If there really is a real threat, doctors decide on an operative intervention, which, as a rule, is performed in the first six months of pregnancy. A method of sclerosing veins with special solutions is also possible.