Briefly about placenta previa
The placenta is an organ in a woman's body, which appears only during pregnancy. It serves as a link between the body of the future mother and her baby. The placenta provides nutrition to the fetus and its respiration, and displays metabolic products. And the placental tissue produces hormones that are necessary for the healthy course and development of pregnancy.
Normally, the placenta is located on the bottom of the uterus - the part of it that does not change much. If this organ is located on the side of the pharynx, then the doctors state the presentation. Placenta previa is a pathology of its attachment and development not in the place that provides a healthy and optimal course of pregnancy. The presentation can be partial. In this case, the uterus is overlapped by a third or two-thirds of the placenta. Full presentation is when the center of the placenta is fully aligned with the uterus of the uterus. It is also called the central presentation. Medical statistics show that a complete presentation is 5 times less common than incomplete.
In the case of incomplete presentation, that is, lateral or marginal, there are chances of an independent displacement of the placenta in the right zone closer to the birth. In the case of a full (central) presentation, this option is completely excluded.
Causes of central placenta previa
What is the cause of this pathology of the placenta location? Sometimes it is due to the fact that a fertilized egg simply can not attach to the right place because of the damaged endometrium of the uterus, that is, the anomalies of the endometrium. The reasons for such anomalies are as follows:
- Deformations of the endometrium as a consequence of inflammatory diseases. These are scarring and disorders of secretory function, fibroids.
- Atrophy of the endometrium of the uterus.
- Disruption of the blood supply to the uterus due to diseases of the cardiovascular system, kidneys, liver.
These reasons make it clear why a full presentation is diagnosed more often in women of different births than in the first pregnancy. Diseases of the body and the genital organs just contribute to the emergence of a central presentation of the placenta.
And the reason for this presentation of the placenta may be a delay in the development of the fetal egg. Then it does not reach the bottom of the uterus and is attached to the throat area. There the placenta begins to develop.
What are the symptoms and complications of central presentation?
Perhaps the most common with central presentation is vaginal bleeding. This is the complication of placenta previa and its main sign.
If the presentation is complete, bleeding usually begins in the second trimester, they occur periodically and last until the very birth. After all, with increasing pregnancy, the placenta literally fuses with the uterus. The fetus develops, the uterus increases, and this is especially noticeable in its lower part - the place of attachment of the placenta. Since the placental tissue is almost not elastic, it does not have time and can not stretch beyond the uterus, which is rapidly growing. Therefore, a partial detachment of the placenta occurs. Vessels begin to bleed, the contents are poured out of the genital tract by bleeding. Sometimes it is replaced by smearing discharge. As a rule, this happens the first time, when a woman sleeps or just lies. But she does not feel any pain at all. This is the distinguishing feature of such bleeding from bleeding during miscarriage, when severe cramping pains in the lower abdomen are disturbed.
If such bleeding, as a complication of presentation, occurs at a period of 30 weeks, it can be caused by sex or physical exertion, sometimes by examining the gynecologist.
Among the symptoms of full (central) presentation can be lower abdominal pain, lower back, lowering of blood pressure, tone of the uterus. Hypotension can be expressed in weakness and drowsiness, dizziness.
With bleeding as a complication of presentation in pregnant women, anemia develops. This decrease in hemoglobin, which affects both the woman and her future baby. Deficiency of oxygen in the blood of a future mother is fraught with a delay in the development of the fetus and a lag in its growth. Very often such children suffer from anemia after birth.
If the future mother falls hemoglobin, the gynecologist appoints the appropriate treatment. But Mummy herself can take adequate measures. This is an additional use of foods rich in iron. Among them are liver and pomegranates, peaches and apricots, blueberries and blueberries, black currants and cranberries. Among vegetables, rich in iron are tomatoes and beetroot, pumpkin and spinach, and among cereals - buckwheat. You can eat walnuts and black chocolate, but with caution, because these foods are very caloric and allergenic. And dieticians are advised to take iron along with vitamin C (ascorbic acid) to improve iron absorption. These are citrus fruits and broccoli, cranberries and pineapple.
Concomitant complications of central placenta previa
Central presentation can provoke such complications of pregnancy:
- Premature detachment of the placenta.
- The rupture of the bladder is premature.
- Probability of wrong fetal placement in the uterus. It can be transverse, oblique, pelvic.
- Increment of the placenta. In this case, she can not separate herself from the uterus during childbirth. Doctors separate it manually. Of course, this can cause profuse bleeding. Then the only correct way to save the situation is to cut the uterus.
Diagnosis and treatment of central placenta previa
Usually, such a presentation on ultrasound is diagnosed. However, it can also be determined on a routine gynecological examination.
As for the treatment of complete placenta previa, there is no medical treatment for the drugs. Doctors can only monitor the condition of the pregnant woman, control the changes in well-being. Gynecologists in this situation control other diseases of the woman, as many factors can contribute to complicating the pathology. When a pregnant woman with a central presentation is not bothered by bleeding, then the doctor can exercise control over her condition on an outpatient basis.
If the situation is not quite calm and the woman feels the symptoms of presentation, then she is advised to stay in the hospital from the 24th week of pregnancy. Usually there she resides until the birth itself in order to avoid any complications and force majeure.
This mother is assigned bed rest, fortifying drugs and iron preparations, drugs that relieve the tone of the uterus. Pregnancy doctors try to extend until the moment when the baby can be released.
Rules of behavior of a pregnant woman with a central presentation of the placenta ??h3>
In addition to medical appointments, the expectant mother herself must behave in such a way as not to provoke complications in any way by her behavior. This means there should be a minimum of physical activity. No lifts of heaviness a woman should not do. You can not make sharp movements that move the uterus. After all, this is fraught with detachment of the placenta.
More oxygen can be absorbed on walks, if bed rest is not prescribed.
No stress, worry and nerves! All this can lead the uterus to tone and provoke bleeding.
Every day you need to eat foods that are saturated with iron.
If a woman is not in the hospital, then she should avoid crowded places in the form of public transport, the market so that it is not pushed, not accidentally struck. And you can catch anything in the crowd. Especially during periods of seasonal flu and ARI.
You should not travel anywhere, so that in case of an opening of a bleeding or deterioration of the state of health, you can immediately contact the observing doctor.
Births with central placenta previa
The main problem of delivery with placenta previa of any kind is the high chances of bleeding.
Central prawning does not even suggest the chances of natural delivery, as the placental tissue blocks the baby from reaching the birth canal completely.
Usually Caesarean section with placenta previa is done in 38 weeks with a satisfactory state of health of a woman. When the pregnant woman is bleeding profusely, then cesarean is urgently carried out.
If the operation went well, the risk of complications, that is, bleeding after it, is not excluded.