Each of us is the bearer of a certain set of genes, which in the future define the personality in the complex of our baby. Hereditary characteristics, which are transmitted to the baby, are contained in a set of 46 chromosomes. So it can happen that one of them is damaged, which is then displayed on the state of the baby. If a woman wants to be calm for the normal course of pregnancy and development of the fetus, as well as for the normal state of the unborn child, it makes sense to turn to geneticists for genetic analysis.
Doctors advise to conduct a genetic analysis even during pregnancy planning: the chances of avoiding all sorts of problems are much greater then. But, as a rule, a woman turns to geneticists for advice already during pregnancy - either in the direction of the doctor, or of her own free will.
The doctor will necessarily send the pregnant woman to a genetic analysis if she is part of the so-called risk group. For example, in women who become pregnant after the age of 35, the risk of developing any mutations and malformations of the fetus increases dramatically. To avoid the sad consequences of late pregnancy, a genetic analysis should be carried out. A genetic analysis is mandatory if there were cases of birth of children with hereditary diseases or children with congenital malformations in the family. It will also be appropriate genetic analysis, if a woman was exposed to harmful factors shortly before or already during pregnancy: she consumed alcohol or drugs, medicines. If in the past the pregnant woman had miscarriages or babies were born stillborn, this will be another indication for conducting genetic analysis during the bearing of the baby. Also, you have to visit genetics, if during pregnancy the future mother had an acute infectious disease.
Traditional methods of genetic examination (among experts they are called non-invasive) are ultrasound examination and biochemical analysis of blood. Ultrasound is carried out for a period of 10-14 weeks: even then it is possible to suspect a congenital pathology in the baby. Biochemical blood test is also given in the early stages of pregnancy, with the help of which hereditary or chromosomal pathology can be assumed. If after the analysis there are suspicions of any deviations in the development of the fetus, the doctor will conduct a repeated ultrasound at the period of 20-24 weeks - it allows revealing the small malformations. In the case of fetal pathology, a woman will be given a genetic analysis using invasive examination methods. Such examinations, and this amniocentesis, chorion biopsy, placentocentesis, cordocentesis, allows to identify 400 of 5 thousand genetic pathologies.
Amniocentesis, or the study of amniotic fluid, is carried out at a period of 15 to 18 weeks. To carry it out, a thin special needle of the pregnant woman makes a puncture in the uterus to select the amniotic fluid. Such an analysis is considered one of the safest, conducted under the supervision of ultrasound. With the help of such an analysis as a chorion biopsy, it is possible to examine the cells from which the placenta will later form. When performing such an analysis, the doctor makes a puncture into the abdominal cavity or takes the material through the cervix. Placentocentesis is prescribed to a woman in case she underwent an infectious disease during pregnancy, as a rule, this procedure is carried out at later terms: in the second trimester and under general anesthesia. Cardocenesis is an analysis that involves the examination of the umbilical cord blood of a fetus. Assign cardocene at the end of 18 weeks of pregnancy, the blood is selected by puncture through the uterine cavity.
And yet it is always worth remembering: many troubles and anxieties during pregnancy can be avoided if it is already with responsibility to approach her planning. So that you do not have to worry and do not worry after receiving a referral for a genetic analysis during pregnancy, it's worthwhile turning to geneticists before the development of a new life began in the womb.