She is in all the sweets, and also enters the body with carbohydrates - sugar, honey, starch. The concentration of glucose is maintained at a constant level only through the action of a complex hormonal process. Hormones "regulate" how much glucose in the blood and what it concentration. The main hormone is insulin. For human health, any "interruptions" in the operation of this mechanism are dangerous: an increase or, conversely, a decrease in the level of glucose may indicate the occurrence of certain diseases.
After eating sweet food - the level of glucose, as a rule, increases slightly. This, in turn, entails the release of insulin, which promotes the absorption of glucose by cells and a decrease in its concentration in the blood. Another insulin helps the body to "stock up" glucose for the future.
The concentration of glucose is determined through a biochemical blood test and using glucose meters - glucometers. Blood sampling should be done in the morning, on an empty stomach - well, or at least 8 hours after the last meal. For the analysis, venous (taken from the vein) and capillary (from the finger) blood are suitable.
You can also determine the level of glucose in the urine. Pregnant women are allowed to increase in urine up to 6 mmol / l. It is associated with relative insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia (increased blood glucose) during pregnancy.
In general, the rate of glucose during pregnancy is 3, 3-6, 6 mmol / l. A woman needs to closely monitor fluctuations in blood glucose levels, since it is the waiting period for the baby that can unfortunately provoke the development of diabetes, because during pregnancy a woman's levels of amino acids in the blood decrease, and the levels of ketone bodies - go up.
The level of glucose is somewhat lowered in pregnant women in the morning - on an empty stomach: it is approximately 0, 8-1, 1 mmol / l (15-20 mg%). If a woman is hungry for a long time, the plasma glucose level drops to 2, 2-2, 5 mmol / l (40. 45 mg%).
At the 28th week of pregnancy, all women should undergo an hourly oral glucose tolerance test (with 50 g of glucose). If an hour after taking glucose, the plasma glucose level exceeds 7.8 mmol / L, then a woman is assigned a three-hour oral glucose tolerance test (with 100 g glucose).
If, after the second analysis, the plasma glucose level in a pregnant woman is above 10, 5 mmol / l (190 mg%) one hour after taking glucose, or two after 2 hours more than 9.2 mmol / L (165 mg%), and after 3-8 mg / l (145 mg%), then a pregnant woman is diagnosed with diabetes. This means in her body impaired glucose tolerance.
The main cause of glucose intolerance is hormone-induced peripheral insulin resistance. In most cases, a woman with diabetes of a pregnant woman is prescribed a special diet. Based on her weight, the expert calculates the caloric value of food. As a rule, 50-60% of the ration of a pregnant woman in this case should be carbohydrates, 12-20% - protein, about 25% - fats. In addition, the patient will each day independently determine the level of glucose in the blood on an empty stomach and two hours after a meal.
If the level of plasma glucose on an empty stomach or after a meal remains elevated, a woman is prescribed insulin therapy. Indication for the appointment - when the fasting blood glucose level exceeds 5, 5, and 6, 6 - two hours after eating.
Diabetes occurs in pregnant women usually at the end of the second - at the beginning of the third trimester and rarely when leads to malformations of the fetus. Most often, after the birth of a baby carbohydrate metabolism in a woman normalizes, although, unfortunately, more than 30% of women with a diagnosed diabetes during pregnancy within five years develops sugar.