Why and who may need a glucose tolerance test during pregnancy?
Often the direction of a glucose tolerance test a woman receives during pregnancy, in this case in the direction it is listed as GTT. Pregnancy is a very difficult period for a woman, when increased stresses on the body can trigger an exacerbation of existing diseases or the development of new ones that can make themselves felt only during the child's bearing. To such diseases carry and gestational diabetes, or diabetes of pregnant women: according to statistics, about 14% of pregnant women suffer from this disease.
The cause of development of gestational diabetes is a violation of insulin production, synthesis of it in the body in smaller quantities than necessary. It is insulin produced by the pancreas that is responsible for regulating blood sugar levels and preserving its stores (if there is no need to convert sugar into energy). During pregnancy, as the child grows, the body should normally produce more insulin than usual. If this does not happen, insulin is not enough for normal regulation of sugar, glucose levels go up, which marks the development of diabetes in pregnant women.
A mandatory glucose tolerance test for pregnancy should be for women:
- who have experienced this condition in previous pregnancies;
- with a mass index of 30 and above; who before that gave birth to large children weighing more than 4. 5 kg;
- if one of the relatives of a pregnant woman suffers from diabetes mellitus.
If you identify gestational diabetes, a pregnant woman will need increased monitoring by doctors.
Glucose Tolerance Test in Pregnancy: Preparation and Conducting
Glucose tolerance test in pregnancy is carried out by the method of blood sampling in the morning on an empty stomach. Since the evening (ideally at least 8 hours) you can not eat, in the morning it is forbidden to drink coffee. In addition, the "sugar load" is carried out exclusively in the case when there are absolutely no complaints about health: even a slight runny nose test results may distort. Also, the doctor should be warned about the use of any medicine before the test. The day before the test, it is recommended, among other things, to avoid increased emotional and physical exertion.
The test itself provides for the morning intake of blood from the veins on an empty stomach, after which the doctor will offer the woman a special "sweet cocktail" containing about 100 g of glucose. After 1 hour after the first selection was made, and then again after another hour, the blood is again taken for analysis. Thus, the specialist will determine how the sugar levels in the body change and change: the normal concentration of glucose after taking the cocktail increases sharply, but then gradually decreases and in 2 hours it reaches the initial level. If glucose levels remain elevated in the blood re-sampling sample, gestational diabetes will be diagnosed.
Indicators that indicate gestational diabetes
Determine the diabetes of pregnant women according to the results of a glucose tolerance test if:
- the blood glucose level for fasting analysis in the morning more than 5, 3 mmol / l;
- After 1 hour, the blood glucose level exceeds 10 mmol / l;
- After 2 hours, the glucose level is higher than 8.6 mmol / l.
It should be noted that the final diagnosis by the doctor is established after 2 "test sessions", held on different days, and in the event that the elevated glucose level was fixed both times. After all, it can not be ruled out that a single glucose tolerance test during pregnancy can also show false positive results, for example, if all the rules for preparing a test were not met, if there are violations of the liver, with certain endocrine pathologies or with a low level of potassium in the body.
In case if the diabetes of pregnant women has finally been diagnosed definitively, the woman needs to coordinate with the doctor further measures. So, you will definitely have to adjust the diet, a good "assistant" in the treatment will be moderate physical activity. Women with gestational diabetes will have to visit the doctor more often for examinations, during which the health of the mother and child is checked. Also, additional ultrasound studies may be needed to track the growth rate and weight gain in the fetus.
Usually, delivery if pregnant gestational diabetes is planned for a period of 37-38 weeks. After childbirth in 6 weeks glucose tolerance test the woman will have to go through again - with his help the specialist will determine whether diabetes was associated with it and exclusively with pregnancy.