What is oxygen starvation of the fetus?
In fact, it's not really a lack of oxygen, but a violation of the overall intensity of the blood supply. It is with the blood flow that the baby gets everything you need, and this includes nutrients, hormones, and, in particular, oxygen. So, oxygen starvation or hypoxia is called changes in the body, which occur as a result of inadequate supply of oxygen. Hypoxia occurs on average in 10% of cases of the total number of births.
Hypoxia is not a disease. This is a signal that in the body of a pregnant woman (including the placenta and the fetus) processes occur that are pathological.
Oxygen starvation of the fetus, or hypoxia, refers to the complications of pregnancy, which threaten the health and life of the fetus. It can occur at different periods of pregnancy, beginning with the second trimester, when the fetus begins to grow actively. And the consequences of oxygen starvation of the fetus can also be very different.
Hypoxia can be of two kinds. By the degree of duration, it can be acute and chronic. The acute arises suddenly, and the chronic develops slowly and for a long period of time. As a rule, the state of acute oxygen starvation occurs in childbirth. In some cases - during the carrying of the baby. But chronic oxygen starvation develops during pregnancy. Chronic hypoxia can occur as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. Chronic oxygen starvation with competent medical intervention has almost no effect on the health of the baby. But the acute is quite dangerous and creates a direct threat to the life of still unborn crumbs.
Why does hypoxia develop?
There are quite a lot of reasons for the appearance of such a state. At the forefront of various diseases of a pregnant woman. Especially dangerous in this case is anemia (a decrease in blood total hemoglobin). If a woman has anemia, this means that her erythrocyte function is impaired, which is the delivery of oxygen to the tissues of her own organism and, consequently, the body of the crumbs.
The inadequacy of blood circulation, which leads to disturbances of microcirculation in the tissues of the body, if a woman is diagnosed with various diseases of the heart or lungs. In the list of fetal hypoxia dangerous from a position of development are chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, diabetes, kidney disease. In case of gestosis (toxicosis of the second half of pregnancy), overcoming of pregnancy or, if there is a threat of premature birth, a violation of the placental blood flow can develop, which also leads to hypoxia of the fetus.
Diseases of the fetus, such as hemolytic disease or intrauterine infection often cause hypoxia. This includes congenital malformations, placental pathology and umbilical cord, as well as various abnormalities of labor.
The state of acute oxygen starvation also occurs as a result of a tight cord with the umbilical cord around the baby's neck, the presence of the umbilical cord, placental abruption, and the fetal position during the birth process.
What are the consequences of oxygen starvation of the fetus?
Hypoxia, depending on its degree, can have both minor and very severe effects. In addition, what the consequences will be - depends on the period of pregnancy at which hypoxia develops. If the early - is likely to develop anomalies. In the late - the delay of fetal growth, damage to the central nervous system is possible. Also, oxygen starvation helps reduce the adaptive capabilities of a newborn baby.
It is established, that oxygen starvation in the early stages inhibits the maturation of the brain structures in the baby, starting from 6-11 weeks of development. In addition, this condition causes disruption of the structure and work of the vessels, and also slows the maturation of the protective mechanism of the central nervous system of the baby. All this can lead to impaired brain function.
Oxygen starvation in newborns is called asphyxiation. It is manifested by the absence or weak cry right after birth, as well as mild congenital reflexes, pallor of the skin. If oxygen starvation was long, later it leads to the development of serious neurological diseases.
Acute hypoxia provokes the development of irreversible processes, including lethal outcomes. But it does not mean, that in such situations a favorable outcome is impossible. In such cases, everything depends on the competence of doctors and other medical personnel, as well as on the correctness of their actions. Sometimes the acute form of oxygen starvation of the fetus requires such urgent measures as emergency delivery, because you need to save the baby's life. The account in this case is for hours, and sometimes for minutes.
How to diagnose oxygen starvation of the fetus?
The woman herself, listening to herself and observing the behavior of the baby, may suspect something is amiss if the number of movements of the fetus is significantly reduced, and literally a day or two ago she, on the contrary, had very strong and restless movements . In this case, you need to urgently go to a consultation with an obstetrician-gynecologist. Even if the future mother belongs to the category of suspicious women, and the alarm will be groundless, nothing terrible. In this case, it's better to be worried than to be unhappy. After all, hypoxia is not a joke.
You can diagnose this condition in a medical institution by cardiotocography, Doppler, ultrasound, amniotic fluid, laboratory diagnostics.
How to treat the oxygen starvation of the fetus?
When diagnosing "oxygen starvation of the fetus," the woman is prescribed a bed rest. Thus, the blood supply of the uterus is improved. In addition, the doctor will prescribe an examination, and according to his results will prescribe a course of treatment, because you need to eliminate the causes that provoked such a condition.
To cure a woman, two methods are used in parallel. One of them is aimed at improving blood flow, the second - on the enrichment of maternal blood with nutrients. From medicines in complex therapy apply no-shpu, eufillin (help to expand the vessels of the fetus and utero-placental parts of the placenta), magne-B6, ginipral (to relax the musculature of the uterus), actovegin, trental (with purpose of normalizing the rheological properties of blood in the system "mother - placenta - fetus").
Also prescribed drugs that contribute to the normalization of metabolic processes, increase the resistance of the brain and fetal tissues to oxygen starvation.
If the treatment does not give a positive result, they decide to perform a cesarean section. This is true for women, whose pregnancy has passed the boundary at 28 weeks.
Prophylaxis of oxygen starvation
Among the basic preventive measures that are available to every pregnant woman, fairly simple, but effective actions. Among them - daily two-hour walks, ventilation of premises in which the future mother is, the intake of vitamins, including iron-containing preparations, the use of foods rich in iron. Refusal to smoke and drink alcohol, avoiding viral and colds are also precautions that help not to learn in practice what the oxygen starvation of the fetus is.
Pregnant women should not forget about moderate physical exertion. As a preventive measure of fetal hypoxia, it is useful to do gymnastics for pregnant women, or even better aquagymnastics, which is combined with breathing exercises. All this leads to a decrease in the hypertension of the uterus, improvement of metabolic processes and oxygen uptake by a child.