Briefly about thrombophilia
Thrombophilia refers to disorders in the body that are the cause of its propensity to form blood clots (plugs). The disease can be triggered by genetic malfunctions or malfunctions of a physiological nature. The disease manifests itself in different ways. Very often she does not let her know about herself, and in case of trauma, surgery, pregnancy due to this violation can lead to dangerous health problems.
There are several types of thrombophilia. It is acquired and hereditary (congenital). Acquired occurs as a result of injuries and operations, and hereditary is passed on to a person by inheritance or appears as a result of different mutations. In the latter case, doctors talk about violations at the genetic level.
In addition to the above division of thrombophilia, depending on the cause of the onset, there is another classification of the disease:
- Hematogenous thrombophilia. This her kind is the most dangerous, and especially for pregnant women. It can lead to disability or death.
- Vascular thrombophilia. This includes atherosclerosis and vasculitis.
- Hemodynamic thrombophilia is associated with disorders in the circulatory system.
What is fraught with thrombophilia in pregnancy?
It often happens that genetic thrombophilia first manifests itself during pregnancy. This is due to the appearance of the third circle of blood circulation - placental. It gives additional stress to the circulatory system. And the placental circle has features that contribute to the formation of thrombi. The placenta is generally devoid of capillaries, and the mother's blood enters immediately into the placenta, where it flows between the villi of the chorion and then gets into the umbilical cord.
The peculiarity of the organism of a pregnant woman is an increase in clotting of blood. This is due to the need to reduce blood loss in childbirth or other complications (placental abruption, miscarriage). But increased coagulability increases the risk of blood clots. And in the case of a congenital thrombophilia in a future mother, this risk is already high enough.
In most cases for women, thrombophilia is not dangerous, but when pregnancy comes, everything changes. The risk of thrombosis in these women is increased by 5-6 times! And the main danger is a possible miscarriage, which can occur with thrombophilia in a short period of pregnancy, and in the third trimester. If a woman managed to endure a baby with thrombophilia, then the birth usually takes place before the due date. This can be a period between 35 and 37 weeks. Such an outcome is generally considered favorable.
In addition, thrombi in the vessels of the placenta can provoke placental insufficiency. And this in turn can lead to a delay in the development of the fetus and its oxygen starvation (hypoxia).
In this case, the body of the future baby will no longer receive nutrients, resulting in a detachment of the placenta and malformations of the fetus, pregnancy fading and miscarriages, premature birth.
Doctors state that complications appear after 10 weeks of pregnancy. Before this period, there is no data on the effect of thrombophilia on the bearing of a child. It is believed that this disease does not affect up to 10 weeks of pregnancy.
The second trimester of pregnancy of a woman with thrombophilia usually proceeds peacefully. A risk increase occurs after 30 weeks. During this period phyto-placental insufficiency and severe forms of gestosis often develop.
Diagnosis of thrombophlebitis
Unfortunately, this diagnosis is very difficult. After all, the symptoms of the disease are similar to the symptoms of varicose veins. It is heaviness in the legs and fatigue, pain in the lower limbs. In addition, diagnostic methods are expensive. Carry out such a diagnosis for all pregnant women does not make sense, since thrombophilia occurs only in 0, 1-0, 5% of people.
For this reason, women often learn about their diagnosis after an unsuccessful pregnancy or several such pregnancies, provided that they are observed by a qualified and experienced specialist. That's why the choice of the treating doctor-gynecologist should be paid special attention.
What can make a doctor prick up and offer her patient to take tests for thrombophilia? There may be several factors:
- Non-intolerance of pregnancy. The term means experience in the past of two or more pregnancies that did not end with childbirth. This includes the fading development of the child, miscarriages, premature birth, the death of the baby.
- The presence of complications in previous pregnancies: fetoplacental insufficiency and detachment of the placenta, severe forms of gestosis.
- The formation of thrombi in hormonal contraception.
- The presence of thrombotic complications in the woman's relatives.
- The presence of such complications in herself.
- Several attempts of IVF, which resulted in failures.
If the doctor identified one of these factors, then this is the basis for sending a woman to a consultation with a specialist (gemologist or genetics), for an additional examination for the delivery of a diagnosis of "thrombophilia". This survey is multi-stage, includes a number of tests and screenings.
Treatment of thrombophlebitis in a future mother
If, after examining a woman such a diagnosis is made, then the doctor's appointment is appointed immediately, without delay. The course of therapy is appointed jointly by a gemologist, geneticist and gynecologist. It consists usually of drug therapy, diet and regimen. The appointment of doctors should be strictly adhered to.
Medication therapy includes anticoagulants. These are drugs that reduce blood clotting. All of them are appointed strictly on an individual basis, and there is no universal medicine that would be equally suitable for all women.
Diet pregnant with thrombophlebitis includes products that reduce blood clotting. Such products include dried fruits and seafood, berries and ginger.
Regarding the regime and other appointments, doctors recommend practicing slow systematic walking and swimming, as well as physical therapy. It is necessary to wear compression underwear and do self-massage. It is highly not recommended for pregnant women with thrombophilia to stand for a long time. And if the work of such a woman is associated with a long standing posture, it is better to think about how to avoid it. Perhaps you need to talk with the leadership about changing working conditions, transferring to another position. And a taboo for such a woman - lifting and carrying weights.
All medical and preventive measures contribute to the improvement of blood flow and prevent the formation of blood clots.
We should not forget that pregnancy in women with thrombophilia must necessarily take place under the careful and systematic supervision of doctors. Such a future mother will need to visit regularly not only her gynecologist, but also a gemologist.
So, thrombophilia is not a verdict and a synonym for infertility. With strict adherence to all the recommendations of doctors, the chances of bearing and giving birth to a healthy child are very high. Of course, one must also take into account the fact that it is unlikely that the baby will be informed until 40 weeks. But delivery at the term of 35-37 is considered a good result. A premature baby at the level of today's medicine does not at all mean a sick child. Modern medical technologies and equipment allow you to care for children who are born and at earlier times.
Therefore, the future mother needs to remember every day about the risks, fulfill the appointments of her doctor and be an optimist.
If there is thrombophilia for a woman, it is very important to plan pregnancy. Treatment for thrombophilia in this planning differs little from treatment after conception. However, the advantage of this approach is prevention. After all, preventing the development of problems is always much easier than solving them after appearance.